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​Clean Energy & Transportation Leadership




Richard Boardman, Ph.D.https://bios-old.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=216Richard Boardman, Ph.D.Dr. Richard Boardman oversees the INL Clean Energy Platform for Integrated Energy Systems development. His staff develops computational tools and test facilities supporting the design, assessment, integration, optimization, and control of industry-scale hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems operate in a closely-coupled, dynamic manner to enhance the systems technical, economic, and environmental performance. Boardman is also responsible for coordination of DOE Laboratories, government, universities, regional stakeholders, and industry for this effort. After receiving his doctorate in chemical engineering from Brigham Young University, he worked for Exxon Production Research and Geneva Steel Mill, then joined Idaho National Laboratory in 1990.  His personal expertise includes combustion, gasification, synthetic fuels process development, gas cleanup, and atmospheric environmental chemistry.<div class="ExternalClass78F7444E82ED496C83757B81A52F9E63"><p>​Ph.D., Chemical Engineering - Brigham Young University</p><p>Integrated B.S./M.S., Chemical Engineering - Brigham Young University</p></div><div class="ExternalClassE3C7ED4F7B07405EA24C690A4CA24818"><p>American Institute of Chemical Engineers</p><p>Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society</p><p>Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society</p><p>Idaho Academy of Sciences</p></div><div class="ExternalClassAA3EC07FE5D54372B3C3B3ABBFD28A1E"><p>(2014) M.F. Ruth, O.R. Zinaman, M. Antkowiak, R.D. Boardman, R.S. Cherry, M.D. Bazilian, “Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: Opportunities, Interconnections, and Needs,” Energy Conversion and Management 78, 684–694</p><p> </p><p>(2013) R.D. Boardman, M.B. Bearden, et al., Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass, Joint Idaho National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report, INL/EXT-12-25252; PNNL-22320</p><p> </p><p>(2012) R.S. Cherry, S.E. Aumeier, and R.D. Boardman, “Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 5489</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, J.R. Hess, “Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples During Torrefaction,” Energies, 2012, 5, 3928-3947</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, T. Kremer, C.T. Wright, R.D. Boardman, “Proximate and Ultimate Composition Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Themogravimetic Analysis and Microwaves,” 2012 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Dallas, Texas, Paper 121337298, July 29-August 1, 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, J.R. Hess, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, T.L. Westover, “Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specification for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal,” Industrial Biotechnology, Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, “Response Surface Analysis of Elemental Composition and Energy Properties of Corn Stover During Torrefaction, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2011) R.D. Boardman, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, T.K. Foulke, D.A. Bell, W.C. Schaffers, The Feasibility of Sitting Coal Gasification and Synfuels Plants in Wyoming, INL/EXT-11-22510, June 2011</p><p> </p><p>(2011) L.O. Nelson, E. Robertson, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, M.G. McKellar, R.D. Boardman, Integration of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Select Industrial Process Application, INL/EXT-11-23008, August, 2011</p><p> </p><p>(2011) L.O. Nelson, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, M.G. McKellar, R.D. Boardman, Integration of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Application, INL/EXT-11-23008, May, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2011) S.E. Aumeier, R.S. Cherry, R.D. Boardman, and J. Smith, “Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems:  Imperative, Prospects and Challenges, Energy Procedia, 7, 51-54</p><p> </p><p>(2010) J.S. Tumuluru, S. Sokhansanj, C.T. Wright, R.D. Boardman, Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development, INL/EXT-10-19569, August, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2010) R.D. Boardman, J.S. Shankar Tumuluru, C.T. Wright, and G.L. Gresham, “Methods for Determining Chemical Mechanisms of Biomass Torrefaction,” Proceedings of the 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Paper #197543, Salt Lake City, Utah, November, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2008) K. Omar, R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, “Evaluation of Oil Shale for Multi-Pollutant Emission Control from Coal Combustion,” 33rd Proceedings of the International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems, (Vol. 2) 830-815, June 2008</p><p> </p><p>(2005) R.D. Boardman, H.J. Gatley, B.D. Phillips, “EPA SBIR Phase I Final Report, Novel Process for the Management and Mitigation of Tar and Oil Byproducts from Solid Waste Gasification,” Contract No. EP-D-05-046, Project No. Pr-NC-04-10311</p><p> </p><p>(2005)  R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, Design and Testing of Differential Reactor and Novel Sorbents for Multi-Pollutant Control, INL/EXT-05-0001</p><p> </p><p>(2005) R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, and R. Wood, FutureGen Supporting Technologies Study—FutureGen Plant Evaluation, INL/EXT-05-0004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) R.D. Boardman, M.K. Clemens, J.A. Del Debbio, R.J. Kirkham, R. Geosits, “Zero Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing,” Proceedings of Waste Management, 2004, Tucson, AZ, paper 4477, March 2004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) N.R. Soelberg, D.W. Marshall, R.D. Boardman, “Fluidized-Bed Steam Reforming for Mixed and Radioactive Wastes,” Proceedings of Waste Management, 2004, Tucson, AZ, paper 4495, March 2004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) R.D. Boardman, B.H. O’Brien, et. al., High Temperature MACT Calcination Test, INEEL/EXT 04-01625 </p><p> </p><p>(2001) R.D. Boardman, L.J. Young, N.R. Soelberg, NWCF Calciner Emissions Inventory- Final Report for the Phase IV Testing, INEEL/EXT-01-00260</p><p> </p><p>(1997) R.D. Boardman, Alternative Calcination Report, INEEL/EXT-97-00654</p><p> </p><p>(1996) W. Chen, L.D. Smoot, T.H. Fletcher, and R.D. Boardman, “A Computational Method for Determining Global Fuel-NO Rate Expressions. Part 1.” Energy & Fuels, 10, 1036</p><p> </p><p>(1995) R.D. Boardman, “Membrane, Selective Precipitation, and Freeze Crystallization Processes,” in Separation Techniques in Nuclear Waste Management, (T. Carleson, edt.), CRC Press, New York</p><p> </p><p>(1995) R.D. Boardman, J.A. Murphy, and L.F. Pincock, “Case Study of Selection Processes for INEL Wastes,” in Separation Techniques in Nuclear Waste Management, (T. Carleson, edt.), CRC Press, New York</p><p> </p><p>(1993) R.D. Boardman, C.N. Eatough, L.D. Smoot, and J. Germane, “Comparison of Measurements and Predictions of Flame Structure and Thermal NOx in a Swirling, Natural Gas Diffusion Flame,” Combustion Science and Technology, 93, 1-6</p><p> </p><p>(1993) R.D. Boardman and L.D. Smoot, “Pollution Formation and Control” in Fundamentals of Coal Combustion: For Clean and Efficient Use, (L.D. Smoot, edt.), Coal Science and Technology Volume 20, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p><p> </p><p>(1993) L.D. Smoot, R.D. Boardman, B.S. Brewster, B.S. Hill, and A.K. Folli, “Development and Application of an Acid Rain Precursor Model for Practical Furnaces,” Energy and Fuel, 7, 786</p><p> </p><p>(1992) R.D. Boardman, B.S. Brewster, Z. Haque, L.D. Smoot, and G.D. Silcox, “Modeling Sorbent Injection and Sulfur Capture in Pulverized Coal Combustion, Transactions of the ASME, FACT-Vol. 15, Air Toxic Reduction and Combustion Modeling</p><p> </p><p>(1988) R.D. Boardman and L.D. Smoot, “Prediction of Nitric Oxide in Advanced Combustion Systems,” AIChE Journal, 34, No. 9, 1573</p></div>https://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Richard%20Boardman.jpgLRM (Laboratory Relationship Manager) Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Office
Eric Dufek, Ph.D.https://bios-old.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=18Eric Dufek, Ph.D.Dr. Eric Dufek is the department manager for Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage & Advanced Vehicle Department, overseeing over 35 research scientists, engineers, postdoctoral researchers and interns. The department focuses on advanced transportation systems with an emphasis on use, analysis and controls for electric vehicle infrastructure, the development, evaluation and identification of technology gaps for advanced battery technologies and analysis of current and future mobility systems. His research interests are in electrochemical systems with an emphasis on Li metal and Li-ion batteries. He has focused primarily on methods to better understand failure modes for batteries impact life and performance. This work has included how to enhance the life for high energy batteries as well as increasing the ability of batteries to charge at high rates. He has published over 40 peer reviewed journal articles in the fields of electrochemistry, batteries, interface modification, immunoassay development and corrosion. He received his bachelor’s in chemistry from the University of South Dakota and his doctorate in Analytical Chemistry (Electrochemistry) from the University of Wyoming. Before joining INL in 2010 he was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Utah. <div class="ExternalClass1A9DCFE8C3AC4C64BE55E60E7DB20A77"><p>​Ph.D., Analytical (Electrochemistry) Chemistry - University of Wyoming</p><p>B.S., Chemistry - University of South Dakota</p></div><div class="ExternalClass2DB8B80C76C84D7285EDF667E0E4AF30"><p>​Electrochemical Society<br>American Chemical Society<br>Reviewer for Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Journal of Power Sources and International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems and Journal of Applied Electrochemistry<br>Proposal reviewer for the Vehicle Technologies Office in DOE-EERE, and DOE-OS Basic Energy Sciences<br>Program Chair 2015 Northwest Regional (NORM) American Chemical Society Meeting<br>Local American Chemical Society (Idaho Section) Chair Elect and Chair of Local Section </p></div><div class="ExternalClass4FD4BBB91E2F467986085A4AC757AAA3"><p><strong>Peer Reviewed Publications:</strong></p><p><span aria-hidden="true"></span>“Challenges of future high power wireless power transfer for light-duty electric vehicles – technology and risk assessment” B. Zhang, R.B. Carlson, J.G. Smart, E.J. Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, eTransportation, 2 (2019), 100012.</p><p><br>“Electrochemical quantification of Li Plating: Challenges and Considerations” T.R. Tanim, E.J. Dufek, C.C. Dickerson, S.M. Wood, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), A2689-A2696.</p><p><br>“Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues” T.R. Tanim, et. Al, J. Electrochem. Soc, 166 (2019), A1926-A1938.</p><p><br>“Safety Aspects of Energy Storage Testing”, R. Bewley, E.J. Dufek, S.E. Egan, D.K. Jamison, C. Ashton, C.D. Ho, M.C. Evans, T.L Bennett, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), E263-E265.</p><p><br>“Pathways for Practical High-Energy Long-cycling Lithium Metal Batteries” Jun Liu et. al,  Nature Energy, 4 (2019), 180-186.</p><p><br>“Critical Parameters for Evaluating Coin Cells and Pouch Cells of Rechargeable Li-metal Batteries” Shuru Chen, et. al., Joule, 3 (2019), 1094-1105. </p><p><br>“Implications of Local Current Density Variations on Lithium Plating Affected by Cathode Particle Size” A. W. Abboud, E.J.Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), A667-A669.</p><p><br>“Impacts of lean electrolyte on cycle life for rechargeable Li metal batteries” S.C. Nagpure et. al., Journal of Power Sources, 407 (2018), 53-62.</p><p><br>“Predicting Calendar Aging in Lithium Metal Secondary Batteries: The Impacts of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Composition and Stability” S.M. Wood et. al, Advanced Energy Materials, 8 (2018), 1801427.</p><p><br>“Electrochemical Production of Syngas from CO2 Captured in Switchable Polarity Solvents” Luis A. Diaz et. al, Green Chemistry, 20 (2018), 620-626.</p><p><br>“Fast Charge Implications: Pack and Cell Comparison and Analysis” Tanvir R. Tanim, Matthew Shirk, Randy L. Bewley, Eric J. Dufek and Boryann Liaw, J. Power Sources, 381 (2018), 56-65 .</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment” Shabbir Ahmed et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 250-262.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Vehicle Considerations” Andrew Meintz et. al J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 216-227.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Battery Thermal Considerations” Matthew Keyser et.al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 228-236.<br></p><p><br></p><p>“Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment” Shabbir Ahmed et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 250-262.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Vehicle Considerations” Andrew Meintz et. al J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 216-227.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Battery Thermal Considerations” Matthew Keyser et.al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 228-236.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and Economic Considerations” Andrew Burnham et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017) 237-249</p><p> </p><p>“Phosphoranimines containing cationic N-imidazolinium moieties” John R. Klaehn, Harry W. Rollins, Joshua S. McNally, Navamoney Arulsamy, Eric J. Dufek, Inorganica Chimica Acta (2017), 466, 254-265.</p><p> </p><p>“Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts” S.V. Sazhin, E. J. Dufek, and K.L. Gering, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2017), 164(1), A6281-A6287.</p><p> </p><p>“Morphological Analysis and Synthesis for Understanding Electrode Microstructure Evolution as a Function of Applied Charge/Discharge Cycles” Michael V. Glazoff, Eric J. Dufek and Egor V. Shalashnikov, Applied Physics A (2016), 122, 894.</p><p><br>”Use of phosphoranimines to reduce carbonates in Li-ion battery electrolytes” Eric J. Dufek, John R. Klaehn, Josh S. McNally, Harry W. Rollins, and David K. Jamison Electrochimica Acta (2016), 209, 36-43.</p><p><br>“Density impact on performance of composite Si/graphite electrodes” Eric J. Dufek, Michael Picker, and Lucia M. Petkovic Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2016), 46, 359.</p><p><br>“Selective fluorescence detection of Al(III) by dehydration of secondary alcohols in mixed DMSO/Aqueous Media” M. Alaparthi, K Mariappan, E.J. Dufek, M. Hoffman, and A.G. Sykes, RSC Advances (2016), 6, 11295.</p><p><br>“Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS” M.L. Adamic, T.E.Lister, E.J. Dufek, D.D Jenson, J.E. Olson, C. Vockenhuber, M.G. Watrous, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2015), 361, 372.</p><p><br>“Unsaturated Phosphazenes as Co-solvents for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes” Mason K. Harrup, Harry W. Rollins, David K. Jamison, Eric J. Dufek, Kevin L. Gering, Thomas A. Luther, Journal of Power Sources (2015), 278, 794.</p><p><br>“Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes” Harry W. Rollins, Mason K. Harrup, Eric J. Dufek, David K. Jamison, Sergiy V. Sazhin, Kevin L. Gering, Dayna L. Daubaras, Journal of Power Sources (2014), 263, 66.</p><p><br>“Sampling dynamics for pressurized electrochemical cells” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Simon G. Stone, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2014), 44, 849-855.</p><p><br>“Aluminum Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte” Prabhat K. Tripathy, Laura A. Wurth, Eric J. Dufek, Tony Y. Gutknecht, Natalie J. Gese, Paula A. Hahn, Steven M. Frank, Guy L. Fredrickson, and J Stephen Herring, Surface and Coatings Technology (2014), 258, 652-663.</p><p><br>“Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model” Eric J. Dufek, ECS Electrochemistry Letters (2014), 3(11) A108-A111.</p><p><br>“Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications” Eric J. Dufek, Mark L.Stone, David K. Jamison, Frederick F. Stewart, Kevin L. Gering, Lucia M. Petkovic, Aaron D. Wilson, Mason K. Harrup, Harry W. Rollins, Journal of Power Sources (2014), 267, 347-355.</p><p><br> “Chlor-syngas: Coupling of Two Electrochemical Technologies for Production of Commodity Chemicals” Tedd E. Lister and Eric J. Dufek, Energy & Fuels (invited special issue Accelerating Fossil Energy Technology Development), (2013), 27(8), 4244. </p><p><br>“Operation of a pressurized system for continuous reduction of CO2 ” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister, Simon Stone, and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, (2012), 159(9), F514.</p><p><br>“Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2012), 15(4), B48.</p><p><br>“Influence of S contamination on CO2 reduction at Ag electrodes” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister, and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, (2011), 158(11), B1384.</p><p><br> “Bench-Scale Electrochemical System for Generation of CO and Syn-Gas from CO2” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, (2011), 41(6), 623.</p><p><br>“Competitive surface enhanced Raman scattering assay for the detection of 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D” Eric J. Dufek, Michael C. Granger, Tanya Sandrock, Sam L. Legge, Mark Herrman and Marc D. Porter, Analyst, (2010), 135, 2811-2817.</p><p><br> “Characterization of Zr(IV)-Phosphonate Thin Films which Inhibit O2 Reduction on AA2024-T3”, Eric J. Dufek and Daniel A. Buttry, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2009), 156(9), C322-C330.</p><p><br>“Inhibition of O2 Reduction on AA2024-T3 Using a Zr(IV)-Octadecyl Phoshonate Coating System”, Eric J. Dufek and Daniel A. Buttry.   Electrochemical and Solid State Letters (2008), 11(2), C9-C12.</p><p><br>“Dioxygen Reduction Affects Surface Oxide Growth and Dissolution on AA2024-T3”, Eric J. Dufek, Jesse Seegmiller, Reinaldo C. Bazito, and Daniel A. Buttry. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2007), 154(9) C458-C464.</p><p><br>“Syntheses, Characterizations, and Properties of Electronically Perturbed 1,1’-Dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridinium Tetrafluoroborates”, Dong Zhang, Eric J. Dufek, and Edward L. Clennan. Journal of Organic Chemistry (2006), 71(1), 315-319.</p><p><br>“Structural and electronic features important to nπ*-ππ* inversion sensors: synthesis, luminescence, and electrochemical properties of sulfur and chlorine-containing macrocycles. Part 3.” Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Eric Dufek, Desire Lone Elk and Andrew G. Sykes. Tetrahedron (2005), 61(2), 479-484.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Book Chapters</strong></p><p>“Selecting Favorable Energy Storage Technologies for Nuclear Power” Samuel C. Johnson, F. Todd Davidson, Joshua D. Rhodes, Justin L. Coleman, Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton, Eric J. Dufek, Micheal E. Webber. Storage and Hybridization of Nuclear Energy (2019), 119-175.</p><p><br>“Batteries-Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries” Hui Xiong, Eric J. Dufek and Kevin L. Gering. Comprehensive Energy Systems (2018), 629-662.</p><p><br>“Rotationally-Induced Hydrodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications to High Speed Bioassays”, Gufeng Wang, Jeremy D. Driskell, April A. Hill, Eric J. Dufek, Robert J. Lipert and Marc D. Porter, Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (2010), 3 (1), 387-407.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Proceedings and Transactions</strong></p><p>“Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts” Sergiy V. Sazhin, Eric J. Dufek and Kevin L. Gering, Electrochemical Society Transactions (2016), 73(1), 161-178.</p><p> </p><p>"Electrochemical Systems for Production of Syngas and Co-Products" Tedd E. Lister, Eric J. Dufek and Simon G. Stone <em>Electrochemical Society Transactions </em>(2013).</p><p> </p><p>"Bench-scale electrochemical production of synthesis gas" Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain <em>2012 AIChE Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings</em> (2012).</p><p> </p><p>"Enhanced generation of syn-gas from the electroreduction of CO<sub>2</sub> at elevated pressure" Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain <em>Preprints of Symposia-American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry </em>(2012), 57(1), 234-235.</p></div>https://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Eric3-800-cropped.jpgDepartment Manager for Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage & Advanced Transportation Department
J. Richard Hess, Ph.D.https://bios-old.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=72J. Richard Hess, Ph.D.Dr. Hess has recently taken on the role of Director of the EERE Program Office. He oversees and leads development of top level strategic planning between EEST and DOE EERE to ensure high impact, integrated, and objective-driven EERE programs at INL. Richard is also the acting Director for the Systems Science and Engineering Division, which includes the departments of Systems Analyses and Engineering and Environmental and Geological Engineering. Richard managed INL’s Bioenergy Program, which focused on the cost-effective use of lignocellulosic crop residues in biorefining operations. He oversaw the preparation of a higher-value biomass feedstock, and also managed the design and construction of one of DOE’s five biomass demonstration units. Hess holds a doctorate in plant sciences from Utah State University, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in botany from Brigham Young University. Following graduate school, he served as an Agriculture Congressional Science Fellow in the Washington, D.C., office of Sen. Thomas Daschle. In this role, he supported many important national agriculture research issues, including new and industrial uses of agricultural products, federal grain inspection standards and plant variety protection. <div class="ExternalClass680C154701744FEBB306FCAEF538E186"><p>​Ph.D., Plant Science - Utah State University</p><p>M.S., Botany - Brigham Young University</p><p>B.S., Botany - Brigham Young University</p></div><div class="ExternalClass1EC321EB70274CCABCC2C98BCCBF65CE"><div>American Society of Agronomy</div><div>Crop Science Society of America</div></div><div class="ExternalClass7DB1CFC44F2B40809B9B4DE0D47705E0"><div>​Hess JR, Kenney KL, Wright CT, Perlack R, Turhollow A (TBD) Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis. Cellulose (Accepted for publication Spring 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Kenney KL, Ovard L, Searcy EM, Wright CT (2009) Uniform-format solid feedstock supply system: a commodity-scale design to produce an infrastructure-compatible bulk solid from lignocellulosic biomass. INL/EXT-08-14752 www.inl.gov/bioenergy/uniform-feedstock (Accessed 6 May 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Wright C, Kenney KL (2007) Cellulosic biomass feedstocks and logistics for ethanol production. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 1:181-190 https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_1830_12163_0_0_18/fulltext.pdf (Accessed 15 may 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Fales SL, Wilhelm WW, Hess JR (2007) Convergence of agriculture and energy II: Producing cellulosic biomass for biofuels. Ames, Iowa: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 2007.</div><div><br> </div><div>Mann, N. R.,  R. S. Herbst, V. Kochergin, J. R. Hess (2004) “A Concept for Enhanced Flux, Erosion Resistant Membranes for Biomass Separations,” Filtration Journal, Submitted for publication, 2004.</div><div><br> </div><div>Wright, Christopher T., Peter A. Pryfogle, Nathan A. Stevens, Eric D. Steffler, J. Richard Hess, and Thomas H. Ulrich (2004).  Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover.  The 26th Symposium of Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held in Chattanooga, TN. May 9-12, 2004.</div><div><br> </div><div>Houghton, T.P., D.N. Thompson, J.R. Hess, J.A. Lacey, M.P. Wolcott, A. Schirp, K. Englund, D. Dostal, and F. Loge. (2004).  Fungal upgrading of wheat straw for straw-thermoplastics production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 113-116:71-93.</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Foust TD, Wright L, Sokhansanj S, Cushman JH, Easterly JL, Erbach DC, Hettenhaus JR, Hoskinson RL, Sheehan JJ, Tagore S, Thompson DN, Turhollow A (2003) Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States. DOE/NE-ID-11129 http://devafdc.nrel.gov/pdfs/8245.pdf  (Accessed 6 May 2009).</div></div>Bioenergy Technologieshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Richard%20Hess.jpgDirector, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Office Program (EERE)
Boryann Liaw, Ph.D.https://bios-old.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=305Boryann Liaw, Ph.D.Dr. Boryann Liaw currently is a Directorate Fellow at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). He joined INL in May 2016 as Department Manager of Energy Storage and Advanced Vehicles. The department operates Battery Technology Center (BTC), Non-destructive Battery Laboratory for Evaluation (NOBLE), and Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Laboratory (EVIL) with facility and a wide range of testing capabilities to conduct performance, reliability, safety, and failure analyses of energy storage systems, advanced vehicles, charging devices and infrastructure, grid and behind-the-meter storage, and cybersecurity studies. Since early 1990s, Dr. Liaw has been involved in R&D activities comprising laboratory and real-life battery and vehicle testing, data collection and analysis, battery modeling and simulation, battery performance and life prediction, battery fast charging technology development, and battery failure mode and effect analyses. Before joining INL, Dr. Liaw was a faculty member at University of Hawaii at Manoa for 28 years, co-founder of Ambient Micro and founder of High Power Research Laboratory. He received his bachelor’s in chemistry from National Tsinghua University in Taiwan, his master’s in chemistry from University of Georgia, and doctorate in materials science and engineering from Stanford University. Dr. Liaw is a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society, actively involving in professional services which include membership in several editorial boards, executive boards and associate editorships. He is past President of International Battery Materials Association (IBA) and serves as scientific advisors for several international and national programs including Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center at Stony Brook University. His recent accomplishments include Asian American Engineer of the Year (2019) and IBA Technology Award (2020).<div class="ExternalClass8DFB2D417F704D988FB3616CACD8FCC9"><p>​Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering - Stanford University</p><p>M.S., Chemistry -  University of Georgia</p><p>B.S., Chemistry - National Tsing-Hua University</p></div><div class="ExternalClass54E7820846D04ECDB6216C63AC61EA2E"><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Journal Publications (in Prep or Under Review)</strong><br></p><p>Y. Zhang, R. Nguyen, B. Liaw, “Status and gaps in Li-ion battery supply chain: Importance of quantitative failure analysis.” Invited paper in Proceedings of IEEE Special Issue on Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. (Under peer review).<br></p><p><br></p><p>N. Gao, B. Li, E.J. Dufek, A.W. Abboud, G. Mattei, P. Khalifah, Z. Li, Boryann Liaw, C. Fang, Y.S. Meng, “Fast diagnosis of failure mechanisms and lifetime prediction of Li metal batteries.” ACS Applied Energy Materials. (Under peer review).<br></p><p><br></p><p>C. Fang, B. Lu, G. Pawar, M. Zhang, D. Cheng, S. Chen, M. Ceja, J.-M. Doux, M. Cai, B. Liaw, Y. S. Meng, “Pressure-tailored highly-reversible lithium metal electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries.” Nature. (Under peer review).<br></p><p><br></p><p>Z. Li, H. Ge, Z. Liu, F. B. Spingler, A. Jossen, J. Zhang, B. Liaw, “Detections of Li plating in Li-ion batteries—A critical review.” In revision for re-submission to Adv. Mater. or Joule.​<br></p><p><strong><br></strong></p><p><strong>Publications</strong><br></p><p>B. Liaw, T.P. Barrera, D. Aurbach, “Preface—Focus Issue on Battery Safety, Reliability and Mitigation.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 (2020) 090001. [DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/abb0f1].<br></p><p><br></p><p>Y. Luo, C. Chen, R. Kadavil, B. Liaw, E. Muljadi, X. Wu, S. Srivastava, T.M. Mosier, E.J. Dufek, “A novel algorithm for optimizing ramping capability of hybrid energy storage systems” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. (Accepted, in production).<br></p><p><br></p><p>X. Wang, G. Pawar, Y. Li, X. Ren, M. Zhang, B. Lu, A. Banerjee, P. Liu, E. J. Dufek, J-G. Zhang, J. Xiao, J. Liu, Y. S. Meng, B. Liaw, “Glassy Li metal anode for high-performance rechargeable Li batteries.” ArXiv.org (10/25/2019), https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.11513; Nature Materials (2020) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0729-1.</p><p> <br></p><p>F. Wang, Z. Lin, L. Liu, X. Wei, S. Lin, L. Dai, Y. Wei, B. Liaw, C. Liang, “Does polarization increase lead to capacity fade?” J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 (2020) 090549. https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab956b.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Y. Zhang, Y. Lin, L. He, V. Murugesan, G. Pawar, B.M. Sivakumar, H. Ding, D. Ding, B. Liaw, E.J. Dufek, B. Li, “Dual functional Ni3S2@Ni core-shell nanoparticles decorating nanoporous carbon as cathode scaffolds for lithium-sulfur battery with lean electrolytes.” ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 3 (2020) 4173−4179. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c00568.<br></p><p><br></p><p>M.J. Hossain, G. Pawar, B. Liaw, K.L. Gering, E.J. Dufek, A.C.T. van Duin, “Lithium-electrolyte solvation and reaction in the anode/electrolyte interface of a lithium ion battery: A ReaxFF reactive force field study.” J. Chem. Phys. 152 (2020) 184301. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0003333.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Y. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Liaw, S.C. Nagpure, E.J. Dufek, C.C. Dickerson, “Cell qualification—A performance metric-based approach.” J. Phys. Energy 2 (2020) 034003. https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7655/ab979b.<br></p><p><br></p><p>A. Raj, B. Li, B. Liaw, C.C. Dickerson, G.M. Pawar, H.-Y. Huang, S. Kim, E.J. Dufek, “Correlation of electrochemical and mechanical responses: Differential analysis of rechargeable lithium metal cells.” J. Power Sources 463 (2020) 228180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228180.<br></p><p><br></p><p>X. Feng, Y. Merla, C. Weng, M. Ouyang, X. He, B.Y. Liaw, S. Santhanagopalan, X. Li, P. Liu, L. Lu, X. Han, D. Ren, Y. Wang, R. Li, C. Jin, P. Huang, M. Yi, L. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Patel, G. Offer, “A reliable approach of differentiating discrete sampled-data for battery diagnosis.” eTransportation 3 (2020) 100051. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etran.2020.100051.<br></p><p><br></p><p>Y. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Liaw, S.C. Nagpure, E.J. Dufek, C.C. Dickerson, “A quantitative failure analysis on capacity fade in rechargeable lithium metal cells.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 (2020) 090502. https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab6cf4.<br></p><p><br></p><p>A. Raja, C. C. Dickerson, S. C. Nagpure, S. Kim, C. Niu, J. Xiao, B. Liaw, E. J. Dufek, “Communication—Pressure evolution in constrained rechargeable lithium-metal pouch cells.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 (2020) 020511. https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab6439.<br></p><p><br></p><p>B. Zhang, R.B. Carlson, J.G. Smart, E.J. Dufek, B. Liaw, "Challenges of future high power wireless power transfer for light-duty electric vehicles—technology and risk management." eTransportation 2 (2019) 100012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etran.2019.100012.​<br></p><div><br>​<br></div><p>​Z. Bao, Y. Cui, E. Dufek, J. Goodenough, P. Khalifah, Q. Li, B.Y. Liaw, A. Manthiram, Y.S. Meng, et al. “Challenges for Building the Next Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.” Nat. Energy 4 (2019) 180–186.  DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0338-x"><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><font color="#0066cc">https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0338-x</font></span></a>.</p><p><br>Z. Chu, X. Feng, B. Liaw, Y. Li, L. Lu, J. Li, X. Han, M. Ouyang, "Testing lithium-ion battery with the internal reference electrode: An insight into the blocking effect." J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 (2018) A2340–3248.</p><p><br>S.C. Nagpure, T.R. Tanim, E.J. Dufek, V.V. Viswanathan, A.J. Crawford, S.M. Wood, J. Xiao, C.C. Dickerson, B. Liaw, “Impacts of lean electrolyte on cycle life for rechargeable Li metal batteries.” J. Power Sources 407 (2018) 53–62.</p><p><br>S.M. Wood, C. Fang, E.J. Dufek, S.C. Nagpure, S.V. Sazhin, B. Liaw, Y.S. Meng, “Predicting calendar aging in lithium metal secondary batteries: The impacts of solid electrolyte interphase composition and stability.“ Adv. Energy Mater. (2018) 1801427.</p><p><br>T.R. Tanim, M.G. Shirk, R.L. Bewley, E.J. Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, “Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison.” J. Power Sources 381 (2018) 56–65.</p><p><br>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Operando lithium plating quantification and early detection of a commercial LiFePO4 cell cycled under dynamic driving schedule.” J. Power Sources 356 (2017) 36–46.</p><p><br>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries.” J. Power Sources 348 (2017) 281–301.</p><p><br>Y. Liu, Z. Lou, S. Song, K. Wu, N. Wu, J. Huang, J. Zhang, B.Y. Liaw, “Electrochemical investigations on the degradation mechanism of lithium-ion power battery with LiMn2O4 + LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 blended positive electrode.” J. Automotive Safety and Energy 7 (2016) 313–321.</p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, H-P. Wu, T-H. Wu, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell II. Experimental investigation of the degradation mechanism.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A2611–2617.</p><p><br>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: a mechanistic analysis of aging.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 201–209.</p><p><br>M. Provera, Z. Han, K. Honda, B.Y. Liaw, W.W. Su, “Electrochemical power generation from culled papaya fruits.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A1457–A1459.<br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 36–46.</p><p><br>L. Su, J. Zhang, J. Huang, H. Ge, Z. Li, F. Xie, B.Y. Liaw, “Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions.” J. Power Sources 315 (2016) 35–46.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “Graphical analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data in Bode and Nyquist representations.” J. Power Sources 309 (2016) 82–98.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, S. Song, N. Wu, J. Zhang, “Entropy coefficient of a blended electrode in a lithium-ion cell.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A2367–A2371.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation.” J. Power Sources 299 (2015) 246–254.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part IV. Over-discharge phenomena.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1787–A1792.</p><p><br>J. Xiao, J.Z. Hu, H. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, J. Zheng, H. Pan, E.D. Walter, M. Hu, X. Deng, J. Feng, B.Y. Liaw, M. Gu, Z.D. Deng, D. Lu, S. Xu, C. Wang, J. Liu, “Following the transient reactions in lithium-sulfur batteries using an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance technique.” Nano Lett. 15 (2015) 3309−3316. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521.</p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell I. Quantitative diagnosis of degradation modes.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1033–A1040.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge determination in lithium-ion battery packs based on two-point measurements in life.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A877–A884.</p><p><br>B. Sun, J. Jiang, F. Zheng, W. Zhao, B.Y. Liaw, H. Ruan, Z. Han, W. Zhang, “Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis.” J. Power Sources 282 (2015) 146–157.</p><p><br>Q. Wang, J. Zheng, E. Walter, H. Pan, D. Lv, P. Zuo, H. Chen, Z.D. Deng, B.Y. Liaw, X. Yu, X.-Q. Yang, J.-G. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Xiao, “Direct observation of sulfur radicals as reaction media in lithium sulfur batteries.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A474–A478.</p><p><br>Z. Guo, B.Y. Liaw, X. Qiu, L. Gao, C. Zhang, “Optimal charging method for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol accommodating aging.” J. Power Sources 274 (2015) 957–964. (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.185"><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><font color="#0066cc">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.185</font></span></a>)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “The value of battery diagnostics and prognostics” J. Energy Power Sources 1 (2014) 242–249.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell degradation in commercial LiFePO4 cells with high-power and high-energy designs” J. Power Sources 258 (2014) 408–419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.02.052)</p><p><br>C. Truchot, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge estimation and uncertainty for lithium-ion battery strings.” Appl. Energy 119 (2014) 218–227.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack,” J. Power Sources 255 (2014) 368–376. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.093)</p><p><br>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, V. Metzler, J. Zhang, “A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries,” J. Power Sources 254 (2014) 168–182. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.099)</p><p><br>Z. Guo, X. Qiu, G. Hou, B.Y. Liaw, C. Zhang, “State of health estimation for lithium ion batteries based on charging curves,” J. Power Sources 249 (2014) 457–462. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.114)</p><p><br>R. Eustis, T.M. Tsang, B. Yang, D.M. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Seeking effective dyes as mediators for a reducing-sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell” J. Power Sources 248 (2014) 1133–1140. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.022)</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “A novel on-board state-of-charge estimation method for aged Li-ion batteries based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter” J. Power Sources 245 (2014) 337–344. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.108)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Synthesize battery degradation modes via a diagnostic and prognostic model,” J. Power Sources 219 (2012) 204–216. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.016)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part III. Aging through temperature excursions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 160 (2012) A191–A199. </p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, M-S. Chen, S-S. Chyan, K-C. Han, W-T. Sie, S-H. Wu, “Identifying battery aging mechanisms in large format Li ion cells,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3420–3425. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.029)</p><p><br>M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, “Effect of discharge rate on charging a lead-acid battery simulated by mathematical model,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3414–3419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.089)</p><p><br>K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, M. Cugnet, “Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3395–3403. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.058)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part I. Initial characterizations,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10328–10335. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.077)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part II. Degradation mechanism under 2C cycle aging,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10336–10343. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.078)</p><p><br>D.M. Scott, T.H. Tsang, L. Chetty, S. Aloi, B.Y. Liaw, “Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10556-10562. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.082)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “Origins and accommodation of cell variations in Li-ion battery pack modeling,” Int. J. Energy Res. 34 (2010) 216–231.<br>B.Y. Liaw, “Tackle hurdles in battery technology emerging in future smart applications,” Electrochemistry 78 (2010) 317.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “From single cell model to battery pack simulation for Li-ion batteries,” J. Power Sources 186 (2009) 500–507. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.10.051)</p><p><br>D. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Harnessing electric power from monosaccharides ― A carbohydrate-air alkaline fuel cell mediated by redox dyes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2 (2009) 965–969.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Identify capacity fading mechanism in a commercial LiFePO4 Cell,” J. Power Sources 194 (2009) 541–549. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.05.036)</p><p><br>M.J. Cooney, C. Lau, M. Windmeisser, B.Y. Liaw, T. Klotzbach, S.D. Minteer, “Design of chitosan gel pore structure: towards enzyme catalyzed flow-through electrodes,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 667.</p><p><br>D.M. Sun, D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “A potential reconstitution platform for PQQ-dependent apo-enzymes,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11 (2008) B101.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Minteer, E. Piles, D. Lehnert, S. Calabrese Barton, R. Rincon, P. Atanassov, “Standardized characterization of electrocatalytic electrodes,” Electroanalysis 20 (2008) 1099.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ transient study of polymer nano-film growth via simultaneous correlation of charge, mass, and ellipsometric measurements,” Pure Applied Chem. 80 (2008) 2439–2449.</p><p><br>D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “Sustainable current generation from the ammonia - polypyrrole interaction,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 3216–3222.</p><p><br>J.C. Viera, M. González, B.Y. Liaw, F.J. Ferrero, J.C. Álvarez, J.C. Campo, C. Blanco, “Characterization of 109 Ah Ni–MH batteries charging with hydrogen sensing termination,” J. Power Sources 171 (2007) 1040–1045. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.05.101)</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M.J. Cooney, C. Rippolz, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ characterization of electrochemical polymerization of methylene green on platinum electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 (2007) D113–116.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity and power fading mechanism identification from a commercial cell evaluation,” J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 566–572. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.046)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity loss in rechargeable lithium cells during cycle life testing: The importance of determining state-of-charge,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 1121–1125. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.185)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Development of a universal modeling tool for rechargeable lithium batteries,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 856–860. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.157)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid vehicle operation,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 366–372. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.237)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, “From driving cycle analysis to understanding battery performance in real-life electric hybrid vehicle operation,” in the Special Issue on Hybrid Electric Vehicles, J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 76–88. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.010)</p><p><br>S.D. Minteer, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “Enzyme-based biofuel cells,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology (invited) 18 (2007) 228–234.</p><p><br>P. Atanassov, C. Apblett, S. Banta, S. Brozik, S. Calabrese Barton, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Mukerjee, S.D. Minteer, “Enzymatic biofuel cell,” Interface 16 (2007) 28–31.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, T. Quinn, “Vehicle evaluation, battery modeling, and fleet-testing experiences in Hawaii: A roadmap to understanding evaluation data and simulation,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 5 (2007) 1033−1042.</p><p><br>W. Johnston, N. Maynard, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “In situ measurement of activity and mass transfer effects in enzyme immobilized electrodes,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39 (2006) 131.</p><p><br>D.M. Jenkins, B. Chami, M. Kreuzer, G. Presting, A.M. Alvarez, B.Y. Liaw, “Hybridization probe for femtomolar quantification of selected nucleic acid sequences on a disposable electrode,” Anal. Chem. 78 (2006) 2314.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Incremental capacity analysis and close-to-equilibrium OCV measurements to quantify capacity fade in commercial rechargeable lithium batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9 (2006) A454–457.</p><p><br>A., Konash, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, D.M. Jameson, “Characterization of enzyme-polymer interaction using fluorescence,” J. Materials Chem. 16 (2006) 4107.</p><p><br>W.A. Johnston, B.Y. Liaw, R. Sapra, M.W.W. Adams, M.J. Cooney, “Design and characterization of redox enzyme electrodes: New perspectives on established techniques with application to an extremeophilic hydrogenase,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 540.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 140 (2005) 157.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, M. Bonnet, B. Dailliez, A. Teeters, B.Y. Liaw, “Analysis of electric vehicle usage of a Hyundai Santa Fe fleet in Hawaii,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 3 (2005) 657-663.</p><p><br>H. Wenzl, I. Baring-Gould, R. Kaiser, B.Y. Liaw, P. Lundsager, J. Manwell, A. Ruddell, V. Svoboda, “Life prediction of batteries for selecting the technically most suitable and cost effective battery,” J. Power Sources 144 (2005) 373.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Self-discharge and charge retention in AB2-based Ni-MH batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A137.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical simulation on fast charging Ni-MH traction batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A265.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Nagasubramanian, R.G. Jungst, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling of lithium ion cells,” Solid State Ionics 175 (2004) 835.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “Fuzzy-logic based driving pattern recognition for driving cycle analysis,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 2 (2004) 551.</p><p><br>R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, B.Y. Liaw, A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, D.H. Doughty, “Accelerated calendar and pulse life analysis of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 870.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, E.P. Roth, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors on power and capacity fades, impedance, and static heat generation in lithium ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 874–886. (doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(03)00196-4)</p><p><br>A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, R.G. Jungst, B.Y. Liaw, “Inductive modeling of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 430.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, K.P. Bethune, X.G. Yang, “Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 330–340. (PII: S0378-7753(02)00195-7)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Reliable fast charge of nickel metal hydride batteries,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 51.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, K. Bethune, “Integrated battery simulation and characterization,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 217.</p><p><br>T. Quinn, B.Y. Liaw, “Electric vehicle rapid charging infrastructure in Hawaii,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1606, IEEE Transactions J. Engines (2001).</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Charge performance of a commercial nickel metal hydride EV battery system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (2001) A1023.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Rapid charge of traction nickel metal hydride batteries,” J. Power Sources 101 (2001) 158.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ electrochemical investigations of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of nickel-metal hydride traction batteries,” J. Power Sources 102 (2001) 186.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Limiting process and mechanism in rapid charging Ni-MH cells,” Electrochimica Acta 47 (2001) 875.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, S.M. Li, M.M. Geng, B.Y. Liaw, “Modeling discharge and charge characteristics of nickel-metal hydride batteries,” Electrochimica Acta 44 (1999) 4525.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “The use of computer simulation in the evaluation of electric vehicle batteries,” J. Power Sources 75 (1998) 151.</p><p><br>C.Y. Wang, W.B. Gu, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, I. model development,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3407.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, II. Application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3418.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical modeling of coupled electrochemical and transport processes in lead-acid batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144 (1997) 2053.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.E. Rocheleau, Q-H. Gao, “Thin film yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia,” Solid State Ionics 92 (1996) 85.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Electrochemical studies of kinetic properties of titanium- and vanadium-hydrogen systems at intermediate temperatures using molten salt techniques,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 2196.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, Y. Ding, “Charging hydrogen into Ni in hydride-containing molten salts,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 63.</p><p><br>X.Z. Li, G.S. Huang, D.W. Mo, B.Y. Liaw, “The analysis of the neutron emission from the glow discharge in deuterium gas tube and the gas loading in palladium,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 384.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L Tao, B.E. Liebert, “Helium analysis of palladium electrodes after molten-salt electrolysis,” Fusion Technology 23 (1993) 92.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, J. Liu, A. Menne, W. Weppner, “Kinetic principles for new types of solid state ionic gas sensors,” Solid State Ionics 53-56 (1992) 18.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Investigation of thermodynamic properties of the Ti-H system using molten salt electrolytes containing hydride ions,” J. Alloys and Compounds 189 (1992) 175.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L. Tao, P. Turner, B.E. Liebert, “Elevated-temperature excess heat production in the Pd-D system,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 319 (1991) 161; err. 332 (1992) 371.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “Thermodynamic and structural considerations of insertion reactions in lithium vanadium bronze structures,” Solid State Ionics 45 (1991) 323.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors based on tetragonal zirconia polycrystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 (1991) 2478.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors using tetragonal zirconia as solid electrolytes,” Solid State Ionics 40/41 (1990) 428.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Demonstration of a composite solid/liquid/ solid electrolyte configuration for hydrogen-related applications,” Z. Chem. Phys. N. F. 164 (1989) 1533.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, S.W. Orchard, C. Kutal, “Photobehavior of copper(I) compounds. 4. Role of the triplet-state of (arylphosphine)-copper(I) complexes in the photosensitized isomerization of dienes,” Inorg. Chem. 27(8) (1988) 1309.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Controlled electrolyte environments and their use for studying and modifying materials properties; potentials for employment in practical devices,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1078.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Hydrogen-conducting electrolyte configurations,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1084.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Novel electrochemical hydrogen sensors for use at elevated temperatures,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1660.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “The thermodynamics and kinetics of the gamma-lithium vanadium bronze structure,” Solid State Ionics 18/19 (1986) 828.<span aria-hidden="true"></span></p><p><strong>Editorship</strong></p><p>06/20 Guest Editor, Focus Issue on Battery Reliability, Safety and Mitigation, Journal of the Electrochemical Society.<br></p><p><br></p><p>01/19 Editorial Advisory Board, eTransportation, Elsevier. <br></p><p><br></p><p>04/15 – 09/17 Associate Editor. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. The Electrochemical Society.</p><p><br></p><p>2013 – present Editorial Advisory Board, Ionics, Springer Nature.<br></p><p><br></p><p>2009 – 2010 Guest Editor, Proceedings of International Battery Association-Pacific Power Source Symposium 2010, as a special volume in the Journal of Power Sources.<br></p><p><br></p><p>2006 – 2007 Guest Editor, Proceedings of International Battery Association-Hawaii Battery Conference 2006, published as a special volume in the Journal of Power Sources.<br></p><p><br></p><p>2006 – present Assoc. Editor. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles.​​<br></p></div>https://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Liaw%202.jpgDirectorate Fellow
Fred Stewart, Ph.D.https://bios-old.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=187Fred Stewart, Ph.D.Dr. Frederick F. Stewart is manager of the Biological and Chemical Processing Department at the Idaho National Laboratory. He leads a team of 30 to 40 researchers in the biological and chemical sciences. In his current position, he is responsible for technical oversight of research in electrochemical processing, membranes and filtration, chemical synthesis, energy storage materials, computational methods, catalysis, supercritical fluid processing, microbiology, extremophilic organisms, and biomass processing and characterization. His research interests are membrane separations and polymer synthesis where he has been active for over 20 years. Specifically, he is published in the area of phosphazene chemistry and has established methods to functionalize these materials and form them into membranes for harsh chemical separations, such as flue gas carbon capture. He has also developed these materials as lithium battery electrolytes and electrodes. He has published > 90 journal articles, conference proceedings papers, and invited book chapters. Additionally, he has chaired the North American Membrane Society meetings in 2003 and 2013, as well as the 2012 Membranes, Materials and Processes Gordon Research Conference. He earned his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Montana State University. Since 1997 he has been an adjunct assistant professor of chemistry for the University of Idaho. In 2013 he was honored with an R&D 100 Award with Aaron Wilson and Mark Stone for their work in switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis. <div class="ExternalClassDF853623528F48F1B6474C72996FB603"><p>​Ph.D., Organic Chemistry - Montana State University</p></div>Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Systems;Chemical Separations;Bioenergy Technologieshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Fred%20Stewart.jpgDepartment Manager, Biological and Chemical Processing Department