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Team Members by Research Area

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Team Members by Research Area

Power and Energy Systems Team Members



Randy Bewley BewleyRandy L. Bewley is a battery test engineer at Idaho National Laboratory’s Battery Test Center, providing performance science evaluation of advanced prototype lithium polymer batteries for the United States Advanced Battery Consortium and other projects. He holds an associate of applied science degree in electronics from Idaho State University. Most recently he has served as lab space coordinator for the Systems Integration Lab and principal researcher and lab space coordinator for the Battery Test Center.  He holds one patent developed at INL for the Feedback Enhanced Plasma Spray Tool.<div class="ExternalClass32EB62BFF1F94FD09A7C89E9B4BB5B05"><p>​A.A.S., Electronics - Idaho State University</p></div>Power and Energy Systems;Hydrogen and Fuel Cells;Energy Storage;Infrastructure and Energy Storage Space Coordinator
David Black BlackDave Black is a data analyst in Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage & Transportation Systems department. He started working at the INL in 1978. For the past 30 years, he has been a software developer and database manager. His most recent work has been in the IT department for CH2M-WG as a PeopleSoft data base administrator as well as an application/database developer on several projects there. He has also worked for Battelle Energy Alliance’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. His past experience includes many years with Analytical Laboratories Department at INTEC and AMWTP, a stint with the CMMS Passport system, and as a SharePoint designer on a Virginia DOT project. <div class="ExternalClass6C94D7404FCA41A4B70E13C0DA38DB1D"><p>​<span style="font-family:"book antiqua", serif;font-size:11pt;"><font color="#000000">Certificate in Computer Programming (Scientific) - University of Idaho</font></span></p></div><div class="ExternalClassE0DFF8DA2A0A421DBFC3CCE9E6FA46DE"><p>"Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Laboratory Information Management System – The Next Generation" by R. W. Anselmo, D. B. Black, J. J. Jacobson, R. A. Kinoshita and L. E. Trejo. LITCO Internal Report, February 1996.</p><p> </p><p>"Tailoring System Logging for Security Needs in AOS/VS" by Dave Black. NADGUG Federal Special Interest Group Newsletter, February 1988.</p></div>Advanced Vehicles Computing;Advanced Vehicles;Energy Storage;Mobility Systems and Analytics Analyst
Richard "Barney" Carlson "Barney" CarlsonRichard “Barney” Carlson is a research engineer with more than 20 years of automotive research experience in industry, academic and government laboratories. As a graduate student at the University of California at Davis, he led the high voltage and powertrain team in the design, development and construction of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for the FutureCar and FutureTruck challenge, his team taking first place three times. He was awarded six patents during his time at General Motors Research and Development on efficiency improvements of powertrains for automotive systems. Since arriving at INL in 2009, he has been the principal investigator for the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (EVI) laboratory. This lab evaluates electric vehicle charging infrastructure to benchmark the state of the art technology, support codes and standards development for the automotive industry, as well as the integration of electric vehicles with renewable energy resources. He also contributes to the Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) through the analysis and reporting of on-road data from hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and all-electric vehicle users. As part of the AVTA, he jointly received, with other INL colleagues, the U.S DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Distinguished Achievement Award in June 2015.<div class="ExternalClassF34DE5185A0E40DAA7168ECB980B1B59"><p>​M.S., Mechanical Engineering - UC Davis</p><p>​B.S., Mechanical Engineering - UC Davis</p></div><div class="ExternalClassDED7AE4952F141CA85A3FF3A6BD3D182"><p>​Vehicle systems</p><p>Electric vehicle infrastructure laboratory</p><p>Electrified Vehicle Energy Consumption Optimization <br> Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Evaluation<br> Test Method Standardization, Optimization, and Automation<br> Automotive Tire Compound Adhesion Variability Evaluation<br> Rudimental Percussion Instruction and Performance</p></div><div class="ExternalClass1DD844A21A4A4054B964906C78485597"><p>Johnston, B.; <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>; et. al. <em>The Continued Design and Development of the University of California, Davis FutureCar,</em> SAE 980487, 1998.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>Testing and Analysis of Three Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles</em>, 2007-01-0283, SAE World Congress 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Duoba, M., Lohse-Busch, H., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al. <em>Analysis of Power-Split HEV Control Strategies Using Data from Several Vehicles,</em> 2007-01-0291, SAE World Congress 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Rousseau, A., Shidore, N., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>Research on PHEV Battery Requirements and Evaluation of Early Prototypes</em>, 7<sup>th</sup> International Advanced Automotive Battery & Ultracapacitor Conference ( AABC-07), 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Bohn, T., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>Automotive Alternator Synchronous Rectification Via Self-Sensing Method for Improved Vehicle Fuel Consumption</em>, IAS conference, June 2007.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>On-Road Evaluation of Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicles Over a Wide Range of Ambient Temperatures</em>, Paper #275, EVS23, 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Duoba, M., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>TEST PROCEDURES AND BENCHMARKING Blended-Type and EV-Capable Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles</em>, EVS23, 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Bohn, T., Duoba, M., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, <em>In-Situ Torque Measurements in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains</em>, EVS23, 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Cao, Q., Pagerit, S., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, Rousseau, A., <em>Plug-in HEV Hymotion Prius Model Validation</em>, EVS23, 2007.</p><p> </p><p>Ng, H., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al. <em>Comparing the Performance of GTL/ULSD Blends in Older and Newer LD Vehicles</em>, 08SFL-0268, SAE International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Congress June 23-25, Shanghai, China 2008.</p><p> </p><p>Rousseau, A., Shidore, N., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al., <em>Impact of Battery Characteristics on PHEVs Fuel Economy</em>, 8<sup>th</sup> International Advanced Automotive Battery & Ultracapacitor Conference (AABC-08), 2008.</p><p> </p><p>Duoba, M., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, et. al. <em>Test Procedure Development for "Blended Type" Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles,</em> 2008-01-0457, SAE World Congress, 2008.</p><p> </p><p style="text-align:left;">Miers, S., <span lang="DE-AT" style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>,  <em>Butanol Blends used in a Common rail Diesel Engine,</em> SAE 2008 Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Conference, 2008.</p><p style="text-align:left;"> </p><p><span lang="DE-AT" style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, Christenson, M., et. al., <em>Influence of Sub-Freezing Conditions on Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Two Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,</em> EVS24, 2009.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R</span>, Shirk, M., Geller, B.,  <em>Factors Affecting the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles</em>.  EVS25, 2010.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R</span>, D'Annunzio J, Fortin C, Shirk M.  <em>Ford Escape PHEV On-Road Results from US DOE's Technology Acceleration and Deployment Activity</em>.  EVS26 technical paper no. 2360162; 2012.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R</span><span style="text-decoration:underline;">.</span>, <em>On-Road Results from Charging Infrastructure and Grid Connected Vehicle Fleets</em>, SAE Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Symposium, Anaheim, CA, INL/CON-13-28239,  February 2013.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R</span><span style="text-decoration:underline;">.</span>, Lohse-Busch, H., Diez, J., Gibbs, J., <em>The Measured Impact of Vehicle Mass on Road Load Forces and Energy Consumption for a BEV, HEV, and ICE Vehicle</em>, 2013-01-1457, SAE World Congress,  2013.</p><p> </p><p>Wishart, J., <span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, <em>The </em><em>Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB)</em><em> </em><em>Project: Development and Utilization of an On-Road</em><em> </em><em>Energy Storage System Testbed</em>, 2013-01-1533, SAE World Congress, 2013.</p><p> </p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R.</span>, <em>Electric Vehicle Miles Traveled (eVMT)Analysis of On-Road Data from Plug-in Hybrid and All-Electric Vehicles</em>, presented to the California Air Resources Board, INL/MIS-14-32984, October 23, 2014.</p><p> </p><p><span lang="DE-AT" style="text-decoration:underline;">Carlson, R</span>., Normann, B.; SAE World Congress, <em>Test Results of the PLUGLESS Inductive Charging System from Evatran Group, Inc</em>., SAE 2014-01-1824, 2014. </p></div>Advanced Vehicles;Infrastructure and Energy Storage<div class="ExternalClass40AB8408A37341EA95BFC1A18FC35DC5"><p><a href="" target="_blank">​LinkedIn</a></p></div>Research Engineer
Charles Dickerson DickersonCharles Dickerson joined the Energy Storage and Transportation Systems Department in May 2015 as a Battery Test Engineer. He recently graduated from Idaho State University with a bachelor’s degree complementing his Associates Degree in Laser-Optics and Electronics. He has more than ten years of work experience in research and development, working for Sandia National Labs (Z-Accelerator), Positron Systems (Non-Destructive Testing) and Idatech (Hydrogen Fuel Cells).  His work interests include alternative and green energies, mechanical, electrical, laser, and material properties.  When not working Charles enjoys doing anything that involves the outdoors with biking and skiing at the top of the list.<div class="ExternalClass5EE35B8CB21C45B3AFD35911377991E0"><p>​B.A.S., Applied Science - Idaho State University</p><p>A.A.S., Electronics and Laser Optics - Idaho State University</p></div>Energy Storage;Infrastructure and Energy Storage Test Engineer
Eric Dufek, Ph.D. Dufek, Ph.D.Dr. Eric Dufek is the department manager for Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage & Advanced Vehicle Department, overseeing over 35 research scientists, engineers, postdoctoral researchers and interns. The department focuses on advanced transportation systems with an emphasis on use, analysis and controls for electric vehicle infrastructure, the development, evaluation and identification of technology gaps for advanced battery technologies and analysis of current and future mobility systems. His research interests are in electrochemical systems with an emphasis on Li metal and Li-ion batteries. He has focused primarily on methods to better understand failure modes for batteries impact life and performance. This work has included how to enhance the life for high energy batteries as well as increasing the ability of batteries to charge at high rates. He has published over 40 peer reviewed journal articles in the fields of electrochemistry, batteries, interface modification, immunoassay development and corrosion. He received his bachelor’s in chemistry from the University of South Dakota and his doctorate in Analytical Chemistry (Electrochemistry) from the University of Wyoming. Before joining INL in 2010 he was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Utah. <div class="ExternalClass1A9DCFE8C3AC4C64BE55E60E7DB20A77"><p>​Ph.D., Analytical (Electrochemistry) Chemistry - University of Wyoming</p><p>B.S., Chemistry - University of South Dakota</p></div><div class="ExternalClass2DB8B80C76C84D7285EDF667E0E4AF30"><p>​Electrochemical Society<br>American Chemical Society<br>Reviewer for Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Journal of Power Sources and International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems and Journal of Applied Electrochemistry<br>Proposal reviewer for the Vehicle Technologies Office in DOE-EERE, and DOE-OS Basic Energy Sciences<br>Program Chair 2015 Northwest Regional (NORM) American Chemical Society Meeting<br>Local American Chemical Society (Idaho Section) Chair Elect and Chair of Local Section </p></div><div class="ExternalClass4FD4BBB91E2F467986085A4AC757AAA3"><p><strong>Peer Reviewed Publications:</strong></p><p><span aria-hidden="true"></span>“Challenges of future high power wireless power transfer for light-duty electric vehicles – technology and risk assessment” B. Zhang, R.B. Carlson, J.G. Smart, E.J. Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, eTransportation, 2 (2019), 100012.</p><p><br>“Electrochemical quantification of Li Plating: Challenges and Considerations” T.R. Tanim, E.J. Dufek, C.C. Dickerson, S.M. Wood, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), A2689-A2696.</p><p><br>“Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues” T.R. Tanim, et. Al, J. Electrochem. Soc, 166 (2019), A1926-A1938.</p><p><br>“Safety Aspects of Energy Storage Testing”, R. Bewley, E.J. Dufek, S.E. Egan, D.K. Jamison, C. Ashton, C.D. Ho, M.C. Evans, T.L Bennett, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), E263-E265.</p><p><br>“Pathways for Practical High-Energy Long-cycling Lithium Metal Batteries” Jun Liu et. al,  Nature Energy, 4 (2019), 180-186.</p><p><br>“Critical Parameters for Evaluating Coin Cells and Pouch Cells of Rechargeable Li-metal Batteries” Shuru Chen, et. al., Joule, 3 (2019), 1094-1105. </p><p><br>“Implications of Local Current Density Variations on Lithium Plating Affected by Cathode Particle Size” A. W. Abboud, E.J.Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166 (2019), A667-A669.</p><p><br>“Impacts of lean electrolyte on cycle life for rechargeable Li metal batteries” S.C. Nagpure et. al., Journal of Power Sources, 407 (2018), 53-62.</p><p><br>“Predicting Calendar Aging in Lithium Metal Secondary Batteries: The Impacts of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Composition and Stability” S.M. Wood et. al, Advanced Energy Materials, 8 (2018), 1801427.</p><p><br>“Electrochemical Production of Syngas from CO2 Captured in Switchable Polarity Solvents” Luis A. Diaz et. al, Green Chemistry, 20 (2018), 620-626.</p><p><br>“Fast Charge Implications: Pack and Cell Comparison and Analysis” Tanvir R. Tanim, Matthew Shirk, Randy L. Bewley, Eric J. Dufek and Boryann Liaw, J. Power Sources, 381 (2018), 56-65 .</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment” Shabbir Ahmed et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 250-262.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Vehicle Considerations” Andrew Meintz et. al J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 216-227.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Battery Thermal Considerations” Matthew Keyser J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 228-236.</p><p>“Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment” Shabbir Ahmed et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 250-262.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Vehicle Considerations” Andrew Meintz et. al J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 216-227.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Battery Thermal Considerations” Matthew Keyser J. Power Sources, 367 (2017), 228-236.</p><p> </p><p>“Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and Economic Considerations” Andrew Burnham et. al. J. Power Sources, 367 (2017) 237-249</p><p> </p><p>“Phosphoranimines containing cationic N-imidazolinium moieties” John R. Klaehn, Harry W. Rollins, Joshua S. McNally, Navamoney Arulsamy, Eric J. Dufek, Inorganica Chimica Acta (2017), 466, 254-265.</p><p> </p><p>“Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts” S.V. Sazhin, E. J. Dufek, and K.L. Gering, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2017), 164(1), A6281-A6287.</p><p> </p><p>“Morphological Analysis and Synthesis for Understanding Electrode Microstructure Evolution as a Function of Applied Charge/Discharge Cycles” Michael V. Glazoff, Eric J. Dufek and Egor V. Shalashnikov, Applied Physics A (2016), 122, 894.</p><p><br>”Use of phosphoranimines to reduce carbonates in Li-ion battery electrolytes” Eric J. Dufek, John R. Klaehn, Josh S. McNally, Harry W. Rollins, and David K. Jamison Electrochimica Acta (2016), 209, 36-43.</p><p><br>“Density impact on performance of composite Si/graphite electrodes” Eric J. Dufek, Michael Picker, and Lucia M. Petkovic Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2016), 46, 359.</p><p><br>“Selective fluorescence detection of Al(III) by dehydration of secondary alcohols in mixed DMSO/Aqueous Media” M. Alaparthi, K Mariappan, E.J. Dufek, M. Hoffman, and A.G. Sykes, RSC Advances (2016), 6, 11295.</p><p><br>“Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS” M.L. Adamic, T.E.Lister, E.J. Dufek, D.D Jenson, J.E. Olson, C. Vockenhuber, M.G. Watrous, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2015), 361, 372.</p><p><br>“Unsaturated Phosphazenes as Co-solvents for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes” Mason K. Harrup, Harry W. Rollins, David K. Jamison, Eric J. Dufek, Kevin L. Gering, Thomas A. Luther, Journal of Power Sources (2015), 278, 794.<br>“Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes” Harry W. Rollins, Mason K. Harrup, Eric J. Dufek, David K. Jamison, Sergiy V. Sazhin, Kevin L. Gering, Dayna L. Daubaras, Journal of Power Sources (2014), 263, 66.</p><p><br>“Sampling dynamics for pressurized electrochemical cells” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Simon G. Stone, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2014), 44, 849-855.</p><p><br>“Aluminum Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte” Prabhat K. Tripathy, Laura A. Wurth, Eric J. Dufek, Tony Y. Gutknecht, Natalie J. Gese, Paula A. Hahn, Steven M. Frank, Guy L. Fredrickson, and J Stephen Herring, Surface and Coatings Technology (2014), 258, 652-663.</p><p><br>“Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model” Eric J. Dufek, ECS Electrochemistry Letters (2014), 3(11) A108-A111.</p><p><br>“Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications” Eric J. Dufek, Mark L.Stone, David K. Jamison, Frederick F. Stewart, Kevin L. Gering, Lucia M. Petkovic, Aaron D. Wilson, Mason K. Harrup, Harry W. Rollins, Journal of Power Sources (2014), 267, 347-355.</p><p><br> “Chlor-syngas: Coupling of Two Electrochemical Technologies for Production of Commodity Chemicals” Tedd E. Lister and Eric J. Dufek, Energy & Fuels (invited special issue Accelerating Fossil Energy Technology Development), (2013), 27(8), 4244. </p><p><br>“Operation of a pressurized system for continuous reduction of CO2 ” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister, Simon Stone, and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, (2012), 159(9), F514.</p><p><br>“Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2012), 15(4), B48.</p><p><br>“Influence of S contamination on CO2 reduction at Ag electrodes” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister, and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, (2011), 158(11), B1384.</p><p><br> “Bench-Scale Electrochemical System for Generation of CO and Syn-Gas from CO2” Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, (2011), 41(6), 623.</p><p><br>“Competitive surface enhanced Raman scattering assay for the detection of 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D” Eric J. Dufek, Michael C. Granger, Tanya Sandrock, Sam L. Legge, Mark Herrman and Marc D. Porter, Analyst, (2010), 135, 2811-2817.</p><p><br> “Characterization of Zr(IV)-Phosphonate Thin Films which Inhibit O2 Reduction on AA2024-T3”, Eric J. Dufek and Daniel A. Buttry, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2009), 156(9), C322-C330.</p><p><br>“Inhibition of O2 Reduction on AA2024-T3 Using a Zr(IV)-Octadecyl Phoshonate Coating System”, Eric J. Dufek and Daniel A. Buttry.   Electrochemical and Solid State Letters (2008), 11(2), C9-C12.</p><p><br>“Dioxygen Reduction Affects Surface Oxide Growth and Dissolution on AA2024-T3”, Eric J. Dufek, Jesse Seegmiller, Reinaldo C. Bazito, and Daniel A. Buttry. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2007), 154(9) C458-C464.</p><p><br>“Syntheses, Characterizations, and Properties of Electronically Perturbed 1,1’-Dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridinium Tetrafluoroborates”, Dong Zhang, Eric J. Dufek, and Edward L. Clennan. Journal of Organic Chemistry (2006), 71(1), 315-319.</p><p><br>“Structural and electronic features important to nπ*-ππ* inversion sensors: synthesis, luminescence, and electrochemical properties of sulfur and chlorine-containing macrocycles. Part 3.” Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Eric Dufek, Desire Lone Elk and Andrew G. Sykes. Tetrahedron (2005), 61(2), 479-484.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Book Chapters</strong></p><p>“Selecting Favorable Energy Storage Technologies for Nuclear Power” Samuel C. Johnson, F. Todd Davidson, Joshua D. Rhodes, Justin L. Coleman, Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton, Eric J. Dufek, Micheal E. Webber. Storage and Hybridization of Nuclear Energy (2019), 119-175.</p><p><br>“Batteries-Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries” Hui Xiong, Eric J. Dufek and Kevin L. Gering. Comprehensive Energy Systems (2018), 629-662.</p><p><br>“Rotationally-Induced Hydrodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications to High Speed Bioassays”, Gufeng Wang, Jeremy D. Driskell, April A. Hill, Eric J. Dufek, Robert J. Lipert and Marc D. Porter, Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (2010), 3 (1), 387-407.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Proceedings and Transactions</strong></p><p>“Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts” Sergiy V. Sazhin, Eric J. Dufek and Kevin L. Gering, Electrochemical Society Transactions (2016), 73(1), 161-178.</p><p> </p><p>"Electrochemical Systems for Production of Syngas and Co-Products" Tedd E. Lister, Eric J. Dufek and Simon G. Stone <em>Electrochemical Society Transactions </em>(2013).</p><p> </p><p>"Bench-scale electrochemical production of synthesis gas" Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain <em>2012 AIChE Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings</em> (2012).</p><p> </p><p>"Enhanced generation of syn-gas from the electroreduction of CO<sub>2</sub> at elevated pressure" Eric J. Dufek, Tedd E. Lister and Michael E. McIlwain <em>Preprints of Symposia-American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry </em>(2012), 57(1), 234-235.</p></div>Energy Storage;Energy Storage Technology;Infrastructure and Energy Storage;Mobility Systems and Analytics Manager for Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage & Advanced Vehicle Department
Michael Evans EvansMichael C. Evans is a senior laboratory lead test engineer at Idaho National Laboratory’s Energy Storage and Transportation Systems department. He has 28 years of experience working with NNSA, Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration, Federal Aviation Administration and the Intelligence Community. He holds a degree from Eastern Idaho Technical College and was most recently taking classes from the University of Idaho. He has co-authored numerous report titles for different government agencies on portal trace testing and evaluation. He has taught electronic, LAN, security, explosives and fiber optic classes to several agencies around the globe. He attended Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Executive Manager’s training at the Defense Department’s Interagency Training Center in Fort Washington, MD and further manager's training at Camp Peary. He hosted, spoke and championed bringing the Interagency Advanced Power Group Workshop to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) so we can showcase our core capabilities. He was asked to speak and present at national and international battery conferences in 2015. He received an outstanding excellence in safety leadership from the INL Associate Laboratory Director. Since 2012 he has been laboratory lead, principal researcher and laboratory space coordinator, providing leadership, guidance, oversight and direction to staff.<div class="ExternalClass150952BA0C4C4B6FB5283E315BA5E919"><p>​A.A.S., Electronics - Eastern Idaho Technical College</p></div>Energy Storage;Infrastructure and Energy Storage Operations Lead - Energy Storage
Chinh Ho HoChinh D. Ho is a senior R&D engineer for Idaho National Laboratory’s Battery Test Center. His responsibilities include battery performance testing for several large and critical programs. He is in charge of test setup, cell fixture design, calibration, programming and data monitoring and integrating unique methods and hardware into testing operations. He has provided support on key publications, reports and presentations. He earned his master’s in electrical engineering at University of Idaho, receiving a 4.0 GPA while working full-time. He has co-authored more than 10 peer-reviewed journal publications.<div class="ExternalClass21F7D50360EF46BB8747AA1D64554D0F"><p>​M.E., Electrical Engineering - University of Idaho</p><p>B.S., Engineering - Idaho State University</p></div>Energy Storage;Infrastructure and Energy Storage Research and Development Engineer
Boryann Liaw, Ph.D. Liaw, Ph.D.Dr. Boryann (Bor Yann) Liaw joined Idaho National Laboratory in May 2016. The department operates the state-of-the-art Battery Technology Center (BTC), Non-destructive Battery Laboratory for Evaluation (NOBLE), and Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Laboratory (EVIL), with more than 25,000 sq. ft. of high-bay laboratory testing facility and a wide range of testing capabilities up to 750 kW, to conduct performance, reliability, safety, and failure analyses of energy storage systems. EVIL is located in the Integrated Energy Laboratory, a facility that can evaluate advanced vehicles, charging infrastructure, grid and behind-the-meter storage, microgrid and power distribution network, real time digital simulation and cybersecurity regarding integration, risk issues and control strategies with hardware-in-the-loop capability. For the past three decades, Dr. Liaw has been involved in R&D projects related to electric and hybrid vehicle evaluation and advanced battery diagnostics and prognostics. His major research activities comprise laboratory and real-life battery and vehicle testing, data collection and analysis, battery modeling and simulation, battery performance and life prediction, battery fast charging technology development, battery diagnoses and prognoses, and failure mode and effect analyses. He also expanded his endeavors to bio-fuel cells, including sugar-air alkaline battery development, and transforming ambient energy resources into useful power sources for portable or stationary applications. He received his bachelor’s in chemistry from the National Tsinghua University in Taiwan, his master’s in chemistry from the University of Georgia, and his doctorate in materials science and engineering from Stanford University. He conducted his post-doctoral fellowship research at the Max-Plank Institute of Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany. Dr. Liaw has co-authored more than 170 technical papers, eight book chapters, and ten patents and patent applications. He is a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society. He has been actively involving in professional services, including serving in several editorial boards, associate editorships, past President of International Battery Materials Association, and Scientific Advisors for several international programs and DOE EFRC.<div class="ExternalClass8DFB2D417F704D988FB3616CACD8FCC9"><p>​Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering - Stanford University</p><p>M.S., Chemistry -  University of Georgia</p><p>B.S., Chemistry - National Tsing-Hua University</p></div><div class="ExternalClass54E7820846D04ECDB6216C63AC61EA2E"><p>​</p><p><span aria-hidden="true"></span>A.W. Abboud, E.J. Dufek, B. Liaw, “Implications of local current density variations on lithium metal electrode affected by cathode particle size.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 166 (2019) A667–A669.</p><p><br>Z. Bao, Y. Cui, E. Dufek, J. Goodenough, P. Khalifah, Q. Li, B.Y. Liaw, A. Manthiram, Y.S. Meng, et al. “Challenges for Building the Next Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.” Nat. Energy 4 (2019) 180–186.  DOI: <a href=""><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><font color="#0066cc"></font></span></a>.</p><p><br>Z. Chu, X. Feng, B. Liaw, Y. Li, L. Lu, J. Li, X. Han, M. Ouyang, "Testing lithium-ion battery with the internal reference electrode: An insight into the blocking effect." J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 (2018) A2340–3248.</p><p><br>S.C. Nagpure, T.R. Tanim, E.J. Dufek, V.V. Viswanathan, A.J. Crawford, S.M. Wood, J. Xiao, C.C. Dickerson, B. Liaw, “Impacts of lean electrolyte on cycle life for rechargeable Li metal batteries.” J. Power Sources 407 (2018) 53–62.</p><p><br>S.M. Wood, C. Fang, E.J. Dufek, S.C. Nagpure, S.V. Sazhin, B. Liaw, Y.S. Meng, “Predicting calendar aging in lithium metal secondary batteries: The impacts of solid electrolyte interphase composition and stability.“ Adv. Energy Mater. (2018) 1801427.</p><p><br>T.R. Tanim, M.G. Shirk, R.L. Bewley, E.J. Dufek, B.Y. Liaw, “Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison.” J. Power Sources 381 (2018) 56–65.</p><p><br>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Operando lithium plating quantification and early detection of a commercial LiFePO4 cell cycled under dynamic driving schedule.” J. Power Sources 356 (2017) 36–46.</p><p><br>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries.” J. Power Sources 348 (2017) 281–301.</p><p><br>Y. Liu, Z. Lou, S. Song, K. Wu, N. Wu, J. Huang, J. Zhang, B.Y. Liaw, “Electrochemical investigations on the degradation mechanism of lithium-ion power battery with LiMn2O4 + LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 blended positive electrode.” J. Automotive Safety and Energy 7 (2016) 313–321.</p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, H-P. Wu, T-H. Wu, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell II. Experimental investigation of the degradation mechanism.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A2611–2617.</p><p><br>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: a mechanistic analysis of aging.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 201–209.</p><p><br>M. Provera, Z. Han, K. Honda, B.Y. Liaw, W.W. Su, “Electrochemical power generation from culled papaya fruits.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A1457–A1459.<br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 36–46.</p><p><br>L. Su, J. Zhang, J. Huang, H. Ge, Z. Li, F. Xie, B.Y. Liaw, “Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions.” J. Power Sources 315 (2016) 35–46.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “Graphical analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data in Bode and Nyquist representations.” J. Power Sources 309 (2016) 82–98.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, S. Song, N. Wu, J. Zhang, “Entropy coefficient of a blended electrode in a lithium-ion cell.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A2367–A2371.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation.” J. Power Sources 299 (2015) 246–254.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part IV. Over-discharge phenomena.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1787–A1792.</p><p><br>J. Xiao, J.Z. Hu, H. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, J. Zheng, H. Pan, E.D. Walter, M. Hu, X. Deng, J. Feng, B.Y. Liaw, M. Gu, Z.D. Deng, D. Lu, S. Xu, C. Wang, J. Liu, “Following the transient reactions in lithium-sulfur batteries using an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance technique.” Nano Lett. 15 (2015) 3309−3316. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521.</p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell I. Quantitative diagnosis of degradation modes.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1033–A1040.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge determination in lithium-ion battery packs based on two-point measurements in life.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A877–A884.</p><p><br>B. Sun, J. Jiang, F. Zheng, W. Zhao, B.Y. Liaw, H. Ruan, Z. Han, W. Zhang, “Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis.” J. Power Sources 282 (2015) 146–157.</p><p><br>Q. Wang, J. Zheng, E. Walter, H. Pan, D. Lv, P. Zuo, H. Chen, Z.D. Deng, B.Y. Liaw, X. Yu, X.-Q. Yang, J.-G. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Xiao, “Direct observation of sulfur radicals as reaction media in lithium sulfur batteries.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A474–A478.</p><p><br>Z. Guo, B.Y. Liaw, X. Qiu, L. Gao, C. Zhang, “Optimal charging method for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol accommodating aging.” J. Power Sources 274 (2015) 957–964. (<a href=""><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><font color="#0066cc"></font></span></a>)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “The value of battery diagnostics and prognostics” J. Energy Power Sources 1 (2014) 242–249.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell degradation in commercial LiFePO4 cells with high-power and high-energy designs” J. Power Sources 258 (2014) 408–419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.02.052)</p><p><br>C. Truchot, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge estimation and uncertainty for lithium-ion battery strings.” Appl. Energy 119 (2014) 218–227.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack,” J. Power Sources 255 (2014) 368–376. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.093)</p><p><br>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, V. Metzler, J. Zhang, “A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries,” J. Power Sources 254 (2014) 168–182. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.099)</p><p><br>Z. Guo, X. Qiu, G. Hou, B.Y. Liaw, C. Zhang, “State of health estimation for lithium ion batteries based on charging curves,” J. Power Sources 249 (2014) 457–462. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.114)</p><p><br>R. Eustis, T.M. Tsang, B. Yang, D.M. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Seeking effective dyes as mediators for a reducing-sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell” J. Power Sources 248 (2014) 1133–1140. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.022)</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “A novel on-board state-of-charge estimation method for aged Li-ion batteries based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter” J. Power Sources 245 (2014) 337–344. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.108)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Synthesize battery degradation modes via a diagnostic and prognostic model,” J. Power Sources 219 (2012) 204–216. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.016)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part III. Aging through temperature excursions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 160 (2012) A191–A199. </p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, M-S. Chen, S-S. Chyan, K-C. Han, W-T. Sie, S-H. Wu, “Identifying battery aging mechanisms in large format Li ion cells,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3420–3425. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.029)</p><p><br>M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, “Effect of discharge rate on charging a lead-acid battery simulated by mathematical model,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3414–3419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.089)</p><p><br>K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, M. Cugnet, “Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3395–3403. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.058)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part I. Initial characterizations,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10328–10335. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.077)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part II. Degradation mechanism under 2C cycle aging,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10336–10343. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.078)</p><p><br>D.M. Scott, T.H. Tsang, L. Chetty, S. Aloi, B.Y. Liaw, “Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10556-10562. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.082)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “Origins and accommodation of cell variations in Li-ion battery pack modeling,” Int. J. Energy Res. 34 (2010) 216–231.<br>B.Y. Liaw, “Tackle hurdles in battery technology emerging in future smart applications,” Electrochemistry 78 (2010) 317.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “From single cell model to battery pack simulation for Li-ion batteries,” J. Power Sources 186 (2009) 500–507. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.10.051)</p><p><br>D. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Harnessing electric power from monosaccharides ― A carbohydrate-air alkaline fuel cell mediated by redox dyes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2 (2009) 965–969.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Identify capacity fading mechanism in a commercial LiFePO4 Cell,” J. Power Sources 194 (2009) 541–549. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.05.036)</p><p><br>M.J. Cooney, C. Lau, M. Windmeisser, B.Y. Liaw, T. Klotzbach, S.D. Minteer, “Design of chitosan gel pore structure: towards enzyme catalyzed flow-through electrodes,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 667.</p><p><br>D.M. Sun, D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “A potential reconstitution platform for PQQ-dependent apo-enzymes,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11 (2008) B101.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Minteer, E. Piles, D. Lehnert, S. Calabrese Barton, R. Rincon, P. Atanassov, “Standardized characterization of electrocatalytic electrodes,” Electroanalysis 20 (2008) 1099.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ transient study of polymer nano-film growth via simultaneous correlation of charge, mass, and ellipsometric measurements,” Pure Applied Chem. 80 (2008) 2439–2449.</p><p><br>D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “Sustainable current generation from the ammonia - polypyrrole interaction,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 3216–3222.</p><p><br>J.C. Viera, M. González, B.Y. Liaw, F.J. Ferrero, J.C. Álvarez, J.C. Campo, C. Blanco, “Characterization of 109 Ah Ni–MH batteries charging with hydrogen sensing termination,” J. Power Sources 171 (2007) 1040–1045. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.05.101)</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M.J. Cooney, C. Rippolz, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ characterization of electrochemical polymerization of methylene green on platinum electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 (2007) D113–116.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity and power fading mechanism identification from a commercial cell evaluation,” J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 566–572. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.046)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity loss in rechargeable lithium cells during cycle life testing: The importance of determining state-of-charge,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 1121–1125. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.185)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Development of a universal modeling tool for rechargeable lithium batteries,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 856–860. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.157)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid vehicle operation,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 366–372. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.237)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, “From driving cycle analysis to understanding battery performance in real-life electric hybrid vehicle operation,” in the Special Issue on Hybrid Electric Vehicles, J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 76–88. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.010)</p><p><br>S.D. Minteer, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “Enzyme-based biofuel cells,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology (invited) 18 (2007) 228–234.</p><p><br>P. Atanassov, C. Apblett, S. Banta, S. Brozik, S. Calabrese Barton, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Mukerjee, S.D. Minteer, “Enzymatic biofuel cell,” Interface 16 (2007) 28–31.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, T. Quinn, “Vehicle evaluation, battery modeling, and fleet-testing experiences in Hawaii: A roadmap to understanding evaluation data and simulation,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 5 (2007) 1033−1042.</p><p><br>W. Johnston, N. Maynard, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “In situ measurement of activity and mass transfer effects in enzyme immobilized electrodes,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39 (2006) 131.</p><p><br>D.M. Jenkins, B. Chami, M. Kreuzer, G. Presting, A.M. Alvarez, B.Y. Liaw, “Hybridization probe for femtomolar quantification of selected nucleic acid sequences on a disposable electrode,” Anal. Chem. 78 (2006) 2314.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Incremental capacity analysis and close-to-equilibrium OCV measurements to quantify capacity fade in commercial rechargeable lithium batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9 (2006) A454–457.</p><p><br>A., Konash, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, D.M. Jameson, “Characterization of enzyme-polymer interaction using fluorescence,” J. Materials Chem. 16 (2006) 4107.</p><p><br>W.A. Johnston, B.Y. Liaw, R. Sapra, M.W.W. Adams, M.J. Cooney, “Design and characterization of redox enzyme electrodes: New perspectives on established techniques with application to an extremeophilic hydrogenase,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 540.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 140 (2005) 157.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, M. Bonnet, B. Dailliez, A. Teeters, B.Y. Liaw, “Analysis of electric vehicle usage of a Hyundai Santa Fe fleet in Hawaii,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 3 (2005) 657-663.</p><p><br>H. Wenzl, I. Baring-Gould, R. Kaiser, B.Y. Liaw, P. Lundsager, J. Manwell, A. Ruddell, V. Svoboda, “Life prediction of batteries for selecting the technically most suitable and cost effective battery,” J. Power Sources 144 (2005) 373.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Self-discharge and charge retention in AB2-based Ni-MH batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A137.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical simulation on fast charging Ni-MH traction batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A265.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Nagasubramanian, R.G. Jungst, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling of lithium ion cells,” Solid State Ionics 175 (2004) 835.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “Fuzzy-logic based driving pattern recognition for driving cycle analysis,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 2 (2004) 551.</p><p><br>R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, B.Y. Liaw, A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, D.H. Doughty, “Accelerated calendar and pulse life analysis of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 870.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, E.P. Roth, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors on power and capacity fades, impedance, and static heat generation in lithium ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 874–886. (doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(03)00196-4)</p><p><br>A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, R.G. Jungst, B.Y. Liaw, “Inductive modeling of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 430.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, K.P. Bethune, X.G. Yang, “Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 330–340. (PII: S0378-7753(02)00195-7)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Reliable fast charge of nickel metal hydride batteries,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 51.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, K. Bethune, “Integrated battery simulation and characterization,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 217.</p><p><br>T. Quinn, B.Y. Liaw, “Electric vehicle rapid charging infrastructure in Hawaii,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1606, IEEE Transactions J. Engines (2001).</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Charge performance of a commercial nickel metal hydride EV battery system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (2001) A1023.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Rapid charge of traction nickel metal hydride batteries,” J. Power Sources 101 (2001) 158.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ electrochemical investigations of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of nickel-metal hydride traction batteries,” J. Power Sources 102 (2001) 186.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Limiting process and mechanism in rapid charging Ni-MH cells,” Electrochimica Acta 47 (2001) 875.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, S.M. Li, M.M. Geng, B.Y. Liaw, “Modeling discharge and charge characteristics of nickel-metal hydride batteries,” Electrochimica Acta 44 (1999) 4525.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “The use of computer simulation in the evaluation of electric vehicle batteries,” J. Power Sources 75 (1998) 151.</p><p><br>C.Y. Wang, W.B. Gu, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, I. model development,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3407.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, II. Application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3418.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical modeling of coupled electrochemical and transport processes in lead-acid batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144 (1997) 2053.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.E. Rocheleau, Q-H. Gao, “Thin film yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia,” Solid State Ionics 92 (1996) 85.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Electrochemical studies of kinetic properties of titanium- and vanadium-hydrogen systems at intermediate temperatures using molten salt techniques,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 2196.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, Y. Ding, “Charging hydrogen into Ni in hydride-containing molten salts,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 63.</p><p><br>X.Z. Li, G.S. Huang, D.W. Mo, B.Y. Liaw, “The analysis of the neutron emission from the glow discharge in deuterium gas tube and the gas loading in palladium,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 384.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L Tao, B.E. Liebert, “Helium analysis of palladium electrodes after molten-salt electrolysis,” Fusion Technology 23 (1993) 92.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, J. Liu, A. Menne, W. Weppner, “Kinetic principles for new types of solid state ionic gas sensors,” Solid State Ionics 53-56 (1992) 18.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Investigation of thermodynamic properties of the Ti-H system using molten salt electrolytes containing hydride ions,” J. Alloys and Compounds 189 (1992) 175.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L. Tao, P. Turner, B.E. Liebert, “Elevated-temperature excess heat production in the Pd-D system,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 319 (1991) 161; err. 332 (1992) 371.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “Thermodynamic and structural considerations of insertion reactions in lithium vanadium bronze structures,” Solid State Ionics 45 (1991) 323.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors based on tetragonal zirconia polycrystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 (1991) 2478.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors using tetragonal zirconia as solid electrolytes,” Solid State Ionics 40/41 (1990) 428.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Demonstration of a composite solid/liquid/ solid electrolyte configuration for hydrogen-related applications,” Z. Chem. Phys. N. F. 164 (1989) 1533.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, S.W. Orchard, C. Kutal, “Photobehavior of copper(I) compounds. 4. Role of the triplet-state of (arylphosphine)-copper(I) complexes in the photosensitized isomerization of dienes,” Inorg. Chem. 27(8) (1988) 1309.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Controlled electrolyte environments and their use for studying and modifying materials properties; potentials for employment in practical devices,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1078.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Hydrogen-conducting electrolyte configurations,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1084.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Novel electrochemical hydrogen sensors for use at elevated temperatures,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1660.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “The thermodynamics and kinetics of the gamma-lithium vanadium bronze structure,” Solid State Ionics 18/19 (1986) 828.<span aria-hidden="true"></span></p></div>Advanced Vehicles;Energy Storage;Bioenergy Technologies;Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Fellow
Chris Michelbacher MichelbacherChristopher J. Michelbacher is a research and design scientist/engineer for Idaho National Laboratory. His management and operating assignment is to increase INL’s brand exposure and confidence within DOE-EERE (Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy); support INL market area leads; support Vehicle Technologies Office personnel with technical program oversight/management; and advance a vehicle-centric cybersecurity initiative within the Sustainable Transportation division at DOE-EERE. He received his bachelor’s in mechanical engineering from Montana State University and is pursuing a master’s in business administration at George Washington University.Advanced Vehicles Computing;Energy Storage and Design Scientist/Engineer
Sergiy Sazhin, Ph.D. Sazhin, Ph.D.Dr. Sergiy V. Sazhin is a principal research scientist and engineer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). He has extensive academia and industrial experience in electrochemical power sources with prominent organizations throughout the world as a scientist, technologist, and project manager. He started his career at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences leading projects on a large variety of battery systems and on fundamental studies. While working for Samsung Corp., South Korea, he launched R&D on new electrolytes, electrolyte purification techniques, and electrode development for industrial lithium-ion battery design. Dr. Sazhin then emigrated to the U.S.A. At Moltech Corp., he managed an electroanalysis team that worked on development of lithium-sulfur battery electrolytes and on accelerated tests. At Rayovac Corp., he led projects on lithium-carbon monofluoride batteries and on lithium-ion batteries. Now, at INL (since 2007), he provides synergy between his academia and industrial knowledge for the Energy Storage and Advanced Vehicle department programs. He is the principal investigator on diagnostic and prognostic testing of advanced batteries for electric vehicles and new methods of electrochemical characterization of battery components. His work has resulted in 46 patents/invention publications, 90 paper and conference publications, and several awards including national recognition. He has contributed to a number of battery technologies, molten salt systems, and active material coatings. Dr. Sazhin has also developed new testing methods for advanced battery materials and battery characterization, including a new approach for battery health estimation that improves safety and helps prevent catastrophic failure events.<div class="ExternalClass88E77DC960424FBB9BF38C983542665C"><p>Ph.D., Electrochemical Technology - National Technical University of Ukraine , Kyiv Polytechnic Institute</p><p>M.S./B.S., Electrochemical Technology - National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute</p></div><div class="ExternalClass8A542E7AD42A4C33BC85E11E47602E80"><p>Advanced materials for the batteries</p><p>Diagnostic and prognostic analysis of battery performance</p><p>Electrochemistry of non-aqueous systems</p><p>Technology of battery production</p><p>New battery materials and their electrochemical characterization </p><p>New methods for battery testing and characterization</p><p>Safety of advanced battery systems</p></div><div class="ExternalClassE0DB2446D163407E92BB9D069A3D3D75"><p>​The Electrochemical Society</p></div><div class="ExternalClassE74CAD9E1C5544698B00EEC4BFF70351"><p><strong>Selected Publications</strong></p><p>S. V. Sazhin, E. J. Dufek, D. K. Jamison. Novel Short-Circuit Detection in Li-ion Battery Architectures. - ECS Transactions, 2017, v. 80 (10), p. 75-84. DOI: 10.1149/08010.0075ecst.</p><p> </p><p>S. V. Sazhin, E. J. Dufek, K. L. Gering. Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts. - J. Electrochem. Soc., 2017, v. 164 (1), p. A6281-A6287. DOI: 10.1149/2.0431701jes.</p><p> </p><p>S. V. Sazhin, E. J. Dufek, K. L. Gering. Enhancing Li-ion Battery Safety by Early Detection of Nascent Internal Shorts. - ECS Transactions, 2016, v. 73 (1), p.  161-178. DOI:10.1149/07301.0161ecst</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin, K.L. Gering, M.K. Harrup, H.W.  Rollins. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes and Solid Electrolyte Interphases. - J. Electrochem. Soc., 2014, v. 161, issue 3, p. A393-A402.  DOI:10.1149/2.043403jes.</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin, M.K. Harrup, K.L. Gering. Characterization of low-flammability electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries". –J. Power Sources, 2011, v. 196, issue 7, p. 3433-3438.  DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.09.019.</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin, M. Y. Khimchenko, Y. N. Tritenichenko and H.S.  Lim. Performance of Li-ion cells with new electrolytes conceived for low temperature applications. - J. Power Sources, 2000, v. 87/1-2, p. 112-117.  DOI:10.1016/S0378-7753(99)00434-6.</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin, M.Y. Khimchenko, Y.N. Tritenichenko, W. Roh, H.Y. Kang.  Lithium state diagram as a description of lithium deposit morphology. - J. Power Sources, 1997, v. 66, p. 141-145.  DOI:10.1016/S0378-7753(96)02542-6.</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin S, A.V. Gorodyskii, M.Y. Khimchenko.  Lithium rechargeability on different substrates. - J. Power Sources, 1994, v. 47, p. 57-62.  DOI:10.1016/0378-7753(94)80050-2.</p><p> </p><p>S.V. Sazhin, A.V. Gorodyskii, M.Y. Khimchenko, S.P. Kuksenko, V.V. Danilin.  New parameters for lithium cyclability in organic electrolytes for secondary batteries. - J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993, v. 344, p. 61-72. DOI:10.1016/0022-0728(93)80046-K.</p><p> </p><p>A.V. Gorodyskii, S.V. Sazhin, V.V. Danilin, S.P. Kuksenko.  Effect of sodium cation on lithium corrosion in aprotic media. - J. Power Sources, 1989, v.28, p. 335-343. DOI:10.1016/0378-7753(89)80063-1.</p><p> </p><p>K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, B. Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, and M. Cugnet.  Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols. –J. Power Sources, 2011, v. 196, issue 7, p. 3395-3403.  DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.058.</p><p> </p><p>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher.  Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations. - J. Power Sources, 2011, v. 196, issue 23, p. 10328-10335. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.077.</p><p> </p><p>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher.  Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part II: Degradation mechanism under 2 C cycle aging. - J. Power Sources, 2011, v. 196, issue 23, p. 10336-10343.  DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.078.</p><p> </p><p>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher.  Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part III: Effect of thermal excursions without prolonged thermal aging batteries and energy storage. - J. Electrochem. Soc., 2013, v.160 (1), p. A191-A199. DOI: 10.1149/2.063301jes. </p><p> </p><p>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B. Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, and C. Michelbacher. Evaluation of Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells Based on Composite Positive Electrode for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Applications. IV. Over-Discharge Phenomena.-J. Electrochem. Soc., 2015, v.162 (9), p. A1787-A1792.  DOI:10.1149/2.0481509jes.</p><p> </p><p>H.W. Rollins, M.K. Harrup, E.J. Dufek, D.K. Jamison, S.V. Sazhin, K.L. Gering, D.L. Daubaras.  Fluorinated phosphazene co-solvents for improved thermal and safety performance in lithium-ion battery electrolytes. - J. Power Sources, 2014, v. 263, p. 66–74.  DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.04.015.</p></div>Energy Storage<div class="ExternalClassD695769CF12C4AC0809F702539E898B2"><p>​<a href="">LinkedIn</a></p><p><a href="">ResearchGate</a></p><p><a href="">Google Scholar</a></p></div>Research and Development Scientist/Engineer
Matt Shirk ShirkMatthew Shirk is a research engineer at the Idaho National Laboratory and a principal investigator of high-power battery electrochemical characterization and performance testing. He has collected and analyzed advanced vehicle, sub-system and infrastructure test data to create fact sheets and reports; prepared custom analyses for data customers; directed and supported experiment design, data logging installation and programming; and presented research findings at meetings and international conferences. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering from Pennsylvania State University. <div class="ExternalClass7BB0296B05524433A4ED76038B205F18"><p>​M.S., Mechanical Engineering - Pennsylvania State University</p><p>​B.S., Mechanical Engineering - Pennsylvania State University</p></div>Advanced Vehicles;Energy Storage Engineer
Lee Walker WalkerLee Walker is a battery research engineering scientist at the Idaho National Laboratory. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a bachelor’s in electrical engineering and Illinois Institute of Technology with a master’s in power engineering. He has worked at Argonne National Laboratory for the last ten years doing battery and fuel cell life and performance testing. He started there as an undergraduate coop and was able to move into a staff position by the end of his coop. He will be performing analysis of the life and performance capabilities of batteries.<div class="ExternalClass43F01D5D7100482D8EE6189A3A54AC39"><p>M.S., Power Engineering - Illinois Institute of Technology </p><p>B.S., Electrical Engineering - Northern Illinois University</p></div><div class="ExternalClass6182BCA9ABAB42F29782047CEF0E4AEE"><p>​Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, IEEE<br>International Honor Society of Electrical Engineers, Eta Kappa Nu</p></div><div class="ExternalClass48319A5A26BE4FF29F38BC090A26CE03"><p>​Bloom, L. Walker, J. Basco, T. Malkow, G. De Marco, & G. Tsotridis (2010). A Comparison of Fuel Cell Testing Protocols. ECS Transactions. 30 (1), pp. 227-235.</p></div>Energy Storage