February 2020 - Rechargeable lithium battery (RLB) technology is transforming portable devices, vehicle electrification, and grid modernization. To make RLB durable, reliable and safe, conducting failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to identify failure mechanism under the operating conditions is very desirable. However, this ability is often overlooked or even lacking. The failure analysis (FA) is often conducted by laboratory testing and postmortem analysis, and the knowledge typically empirical. Here we present a quantitative approach for FMEA that can reveal how failure modes and effects reduce the capacity of a RLB. This approach is based on the state of the battery for FMEA, contrary to the conventional approach based on operating or testing conditions. The key aspect of this FMEA method is to convert the experimental results to a state-of-charge (SOC)-based analytic methodology. Such a conversion can separate the thermodynamic and kinetic attributes of capacity fade based on compositional correspondence in the electrode, so the loss and the decreased utilization of the active materials can be determined respectively.