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​Caldera is an electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure simulation platform that enables the development of control strategies and artificial intelligence (AI) for holistic integration of electric transportation with the grid. The foundation of Caldera is it's first-of-its-kind library of high-fidelity charging models for a wide variety of vehicles, validated by test data under a range of operating conditions. Caldera adeptly bridges the gap between transportation and grid models and provides accurate co-simulation of both, a crucial need as the transportation sector shifts to EVs.

Caldera offers a development and virtual testing environment for multi-agent controls and AI decision algorithms. It allows research and engineering teams to develop and test smart charge management strategies, automated load management controls for DC fast charging (DCFC)  and extreme fast charging (XFC) sites, and driver decision support tools for site-level and network-level vehicle/grid integration.

The Caldera simulation platform is the premier tool for accurately forecasting EV charging demand on the grid across multiple scenarios and use cases. It allows electric utilities, fleet and facility managers, and charging infrastructure planners to overcome uncertainty about charging loads and explore options for managing grid demand, while still meeting EV charging needs.

It consists of two main modules:​



Charging Model Library

High-fidelity models for AC Level 1 & 2, DCFC, and XFC and stationary battery energy storage systems


​Charging Control

AC Level 2 smart charge management strategies
XFC station control strategies




Fleet dispatching and charging management



Travel demand forecaster
Charging decision agent​


Charging demand forecaster
Infrastructure decision agent​

Caldera links with transportation network and grid distribution network simulation tools through Hierarchical Engine for Large-scale Infrastructure Co-Simulation (HELICS).

With its charging model library, control strategy module, VehicleAI and InfrastructureAI, Caldera is a versatile tool for understanding and managing the impact of EV charging on the electric grid in many use cases, including the following:



  • Smart charge management and vehicle-to-building/vehicle-to-grid charging at residences and workplaces

Caldera results show how residential smart charge management impacts peak feeder power and compares various approaches.

  • High-power fast charging and integration of stationary energy storage for light-duty EVs on corridors and in communities

Caldera explores the benefits of stationary energy storage at a public high-power fast charging station with various dispatch controls employed to limit utility demand charges.

  • Commercial applications at travel centers, package sorting centers, and goods distribution warehouses that will support electric vans and trucks in the future ​

The agent-based-modeling approach used by Caldera enables detailed investigation of individual charging stations and small-scale aggregations on feeders or substations – necessary to understand impacts of geographic concentrations of charging infrastructure.


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​To partner with us, contact:  Tim Pennington   -​