July 2020 - A safe and reliable battery operation needs effective diagnostic tools. A quantitative failure analysis (FA) to enable cell qualification and quantify its effectiveness for reliable and safe operation of rechargeable Li batteries (RLB) is shown here. The method can identify and quantify potential failure based on the state of charge (SOC) under any operating conditions. A precise and accurate electrochemical analytic diagnosis (eCAD) of 14 rechargeable Li || NMC622 cells of the same build are used as an example. The FA by eCAD can quantitatively decipher good, bad and ugly cells in cycle aging. The cell qualification is based on thermodynamic SOC, not experimental conditions. The method provides a quantitative failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to reveal diverse “dead Li” formation that affects the reversibility of the Li anode and charge retention in the cell. This cell qualification method highlights the potential to improve cell quality for safe operation, with strong implications for early fault detection, FA, risk mitigation, state estimation and life prediction for reliable and safe RLB operations.