Charging Decision Making for Automated Electric Vehicles

Zonggen Yi

July 2018 - Overview/Significance With the emerging of autonomous driving and its application in electric vehicles, the charging decision making should be taken over by the vehicles. Autonomous electric vehicles will require the capability to make charging decisions according to the battery energy state, the travel demand and also the available charging infrastructure. The introduction of autonomous driving technology would remove the challenge of co-locating charging infrastructure with driver destinations and presents a driver-free method for EVs to reach nearby charging stations. This will significantly change the charging behavior of electric vehicles. EV driver will no longer need to be present at charging stations for charging actions. Automated EVs can drive to nearby charging stations to perform charging actions by themselves when necessary. Meanwhile, connected vehicles technology makes electric vehicles have the capability to sense and obtain pertinent information from nearby charging station networks and then calculate the corresponding costs and availability for charging. All these promising capabilities bring new opportunities to construct an automatic charging decision making system and improve energy efficiency of charging actions for automatic electric vehicles. Abstract: Methodology This research introduces optimization tools and case studies on charging decision making for automated electric vehicles under personal usage scenario. The designed optimization tools aim to provide charging strategies, i.e. the optimal choice of charging station outside home and the amount of charged energy, by considering constraints from personal daily itineraries and existing charging infrastructure. Abundant real world EV data is utilized to construct stochastic energy consumption prediction model under realistic driving conditions. Advanced dynamic programming technology is utilized to model and solve the potential multi-stage decision making process by considering realistic uncertainties of EV energy cost and dynamics of itinerary information. Large-scale simulation studies using Chicago itinerary data are demonstrated to illustrate energy benefits from automatic charging decision making for future autonomous EVs. Abstract: Results/Conclusions Optimal automatic charging decision making and its energy benefits have been studied for personal automated electric vehicles. A data-driven method based on large amount of real-world data and the corresponding real-time update algorithm have been proposed to construct multi-channel stochastic energy consumption prediction model. Based on the energy cost prediction, dynamic multi-stage charging decision-making models are established for optimal strategies during a daily itinerary. Derived charging strategies can minimize the monetary and energy cost of charging actions for autonomous vehicles. Simulations and case studies show the potential ability of autonomous electric vehicles to reduce the range anxiety and charging infrastructure dependency. Automatic charging decision making can mitigate the pain from electric vehicle charging necessity outside home. In conclusion, automated electric vehicles equipped with an appropriate automatic charging decision making system will help EV driver to relieve from heavy time cost of recharging, reduce the energy cost of performing charging actions and improve the energy efficiency in future electrified transportation system.

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