Rational designs to enable 10-min fast charging and long cycle life in lithium-ion batteries

Tanvir R. Tanim, Sangwook Kim, Andrew M. Colclasure, Zhenzhen Yang, Kevin Gering, Peter J. Weddle, Michael Evans, Eric J. Dufek, Yulin Lin, Jianguo Wen, Francois Usseglio-Viretta, Alison R. Dunlop, Stephen E. Trask, Kandler Smith, Brian J. Ingram, Andrew N. Jansen

October 2023 - A daunting challenge in the design of lithium ion batteries (LiBs) is enabling 10-min extreme fast charging (XFC) while achieving appreciable charge acceptance and cycle life. This desirable outcome requires both a comprehensive understanding of LiB operation and aging behavior at different length scales and careful optimization. Lithium plating has been a critical bottleneck because, at XFC rates, it consumes cyclable lithium causing distinct aging and safety concerns even in moderate-loading LiBs. We propose combining multiple solutions, including materials-to-electrode design-to-charging protocols, that are intended to overcome limitations in lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte phase, thus enabling 10-min XFC in LiBs. Some implemented strategies include cathode chemistry, optimized carbon binder domain in the cathode, dual layer anode design, improved separator and advanced electrolyte. Further, innovative charging protocols in moderately loading ( 3 mAh/cm2 anode/2.7 mAh/cm2 cathode) single-layer pouch cells are proposed, together with demonstrated 10-min XFC with higher charge acceptance between 87.3 and 92.1% (or 2–2.1 mAh/cm2) for 600 cycles without lithium plating. This methodical study with well-defined cells shows promise in combining multiple solution strategies to enable 10-min XFC, charting a pathway to achieve XFC in higher-loading energy-optimized LiBs.

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