Quantitative Analysis of Origin of Lithium Inventory Loss and Interface Evolution over Extended Fast Charge Aging in Li Ion Batteries

Zhenzhen Yang, Tanvir R. Tanim, Haoyu Liu, Ira Bloom, Eric J. Dufek, Baris Key, and Brian J. Ingram

July 2023 - During the extreme fast charging (XFC) of lithium-ion batteries, lithium inventory loss (LLI) and reaction mechanisms at the anode/electrolyte interface are crucial factors in performance and safety. Determining the causes of LLI and quantifying them remain an essential challenge. We present mechanistic research on the evolution and interactions of aging mechanisms at the anode/electrolyte interface. We used NMC532/graphite pouch cells charged at rates of 1, 6, and 9 C up to 1000 cycles for our investigation. The cell components were characterized after cycling using electrochemical measurements, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, 7Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that cells charged at 1 C exhibit no Li plating, and the increase of SEI thickness is the dominant source of the Li loss. In contrast, Li loss in cells charged at 9 C is related to the formation of the metallic plating layers (42%) the SEI layer (38.1%) and irreversible intercalation into the bulk graphite (19%). XPS analysis suggests that the charging rate has little influence on the evolution of SEI composition. The interactions between competing aging mechanisms were evaluated by a correlation analysis. The quantitative method established in this work provides a comprehensive analytical framework for understanding the synergistic coupling of anodic degradation mechanisms, forecasting SEI failure scenarios, and assessing the XFC lithium-ion battery capacity fade.

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