A mathematical approach to survey electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for aging in lithium-ion batteries

Bor-Rong Chen, Yugandhar R. Police, Meng Li, Paramesh R. Chinnam, Tanvir R. Tanim and Eric J. Dufek

February 2023 - Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a valuable technique to detect the health status and aging phenomena in lithium-ion batteries (LiB). Equivalent circuit modeling (ECM) is conventionally used when interpreting EIS data and gaining physical insights into the aging mechanisms. However, performing ECM is resource intensive and expert-level of knowledge is usually required to select suitable models and fitting parameters. This article presents a quick and user-friendly data analysis algorithm as an alternative to ECM by mathematically fitting geometric features in Nyquist plots and obtaining the growth trends of the features. The evolving trends in the Nyquist plots, such as chord lengths of the arcs and interception points, are consistent with the growth of resistance components obtained using ECM with R2 values from 0.67 to 0.99, and therefore can be used as indicators of battery aging. Our results show that the quick-fitting approach is suitable for analyzing a series of EIS data acquired during battery cycling and identifying the underlying aging mechanisms.

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