November 2022 - A comprehensive understanding of lithium-ion battery (LiB) lifespan is the key to designing durable batteries and optimizing use protocols. Although battery lifetime prediction methods are flourishing, diagnosis of the root causes of aging and degradation have not yet been well developed nor studied for a broad mixture of designs and use cases. Here, we create a machine-learning (ML)-based framework that distinguishes aging modes using multiple electrochemical signatures recorded cycle-by-cycle. The predominant aging behaviors include a combination of loss of active materials in cathode (LAMPE) and a loss of Li inventory (LLI) in Li plating or solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, manifested from 44 batteries representing two cathode chemistries, two electrode loadings, and five charging rates. The aging mode classification accuracy is 86% using features within the first 50 cycles and increases to 88% beyond 225 cycles. The same features can quantify the percentage of end-of-life LAMPE with only 4.3% of error.