Impact of Battery Cell Imbalance on Electric Vehicle Range

Jun Chen, Zhaodong Zhou, Ziwei Zhou, Xia Wang, Boryann Liaw

September 2022 - Due to manufacturing variation, battery cells often possess heterogeneous characteristics, leading to battery state-of-charge variation in real-time. Since the lowest cell state-of-charge determines the useful life of battery pack, such variation can negatively impact the battery performance and electric vehicles range. Existing research has been focused on control design to mitigate cell imbalance. However, it is yet unclear how much impacts the cell imbalance can have on electric vehicle range. This paper closes this knowledge gap by using a simulation environment consisting of real-world driving speed data, vehicle longitudinal control, propulsion and vehicle dynamics, and cell level battery modeling. In particular, each battery cell is modeled as an equivalent circuit model, and variations among cell parameters are introduced to assess their impact on electric vehicles range and to identify the most influential parameter variations. Simulation results and analysis can be used to assist balancing control design and to benchmark control performance.

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