Interfaces in all solid state Li-metal batteries: A review on instabilities, stabilization strategies, and scalability

Partha P. Paul, Bor-Rong Chen, Spencer A. Langevin, Eric J. Dufek, Johanna Nelson Weker, Jesse S. Ko

March 2022 - With technological advancements in electrochemical energy storage systems increasing at a spectacular rate, batteries equipped with a lithium anode hold the key towards unlocking high energy densities. While lithium-ion batteries with layered anodes (e.g. graphite) and liquid organic electrolytes have been ubiquitous in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and grid applications, all solid-state batteries that use the combination of a lithium anode and a solid-state electrolyte (SSE) will further advance the present technology. The underlying challenge that limits the successful development of all solid-state batteries (ASSBs) is dictated largely by the highly reactive interfaces at the anode/SSE and the cathode/SSE interface. In this comprehensive review, we present an overview of the following: (i) characterization of the electrode/SSE interface via multimodal characterization, which include X-ray-, electron-, neutron-, optical-, and computation-based methods: (ii) parasitic reactions that occur from chemical, mechanical or electrochemical instabilities and interfacial engineering strategies for improving the stability of these interfaces classified by the class of inorganic SSEs (sulfide-, NASICON-, and garnet-type SSEs); (iii) laboratory-to-industry scale processing perspectives of SSEs; (iv) scalability and manufacturing aspects of current interfacial strategies; and (v) the prospects of all ASSBs within the context of extreme fast charging capability. This review seeks to highlight key efforts in the field of ASSBs, by focusing particularly on stabilizing the electrode/SSE interfaces, which will help to bridge fundamental studies to technological relevance.

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